Geological Terms Beginning With "C"
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A large, bowl-shaped crater associated with a volcanic vent. A caldera can form when a volcanic blast or the collapse of a volcanic cone into an emptied magma chamber produces a depression. Large calderas exist at Crater Lake and Yellowstone.
The lower part of the "unsaturated zone" where some moisture is transmitted up from the water table by capillary action.
A rock made up primarily of carbonate minerals (minerals containing the CO3 anionic structure). Limestone (made up primarily of calicite - CaCO3), dolostone (made up primarily of dolomite - CaMg (CO3)2) and marble (metamorposed limestone or dolomite) are the most commonly-encountered carbonate rocks. The example photo is a piece of limestone.
A weak acid (H2CO3) that forms from the reaction of water and carbon dioxide. Most rain water is a very weak carbonic acid solution formed by the reaction of rain with small amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
A rock composed of rock fragments formed by crushing and shearing during tectonic movements. The rock fragments can be as small as a powder or as large as several feet across. The original rock types may have been sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic, but the cataclastics themselves are often metamorphic because of their heat and pressure exposure. Cataclastite, mylonite and tectonite are examples of cataclastic rocks. See larger photos by USGS.
An atom with a positive charge that has been produced by the loss of one or more electrons. In the image, a sodium atom lost one electron in its outermost shell and is now a sodium ion with a positive one electron (red) and is now a chloride ion with a negative charge.
A solid precipitate of calcium carbonate, silica, iron oxide, clay minerals or other materials that forms within the pore spaces of a sediment and binds it into a sedimentary rock. In the photo at right the orange-brown material is a carbonate cement binding pebbles of chert (CT) and quartz (Q). See larger photo by USGS.
The processes through which dissolved substances in pore water preciptate between the grains of a sediment and bind it into a sedimentary rock.
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
A rock that forms from the precipitation of mineral material from solution. An excellent example is halite. Other rocks such as chert, flint, limestone and iron ore are sometimes chemical and sometimes biological.
The breaking down of rock material at or near Earth's surface by solution or chemical alteration. Common alteration processes are oxidation and hydrolysis. The broken, gray igneous rocks in the photo at right have orange weathering rinds caused by alteration of mineral grains exposed to the environment on the rock's surface. See larger photo by USGS.
A microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock composed of SiO2. Occurs as nodules and concretionary masses and less frequently as a layered deposit. It may form through chemical or biological activity.
The valves, gauges and fittings installed at the surface at the top of an oil or gas well. These measure, control and direct the flow of formation fluids produced from the well. Image © SGV iStockphoto.
The lowest horizon of a soil profile. It is below the B-horizon and immediately above the bedrock. It is a rocky zone that consists mostly of partially weathered bedrock and the weathering products of the least resistant minerals in that bedrock.
A cone-shaped hill that consists of pyroclastic materials ejected from a volcanic vent. The photo at right shows a cinder cone and landscape covered with red scoria at Mauna Kea Hawaii.
A bowl-shaped depression with very steep sides that forms at the head of a mountain glacier. Forms from cold-climate weathering processes including frost wedging and plucking.
A clastic mineral particle of any composition that has a grain size smaller than 1/256 mm. The term is also used in reference to a broad category of hydrous silicate minerals in which the silica tetrahedrons are arranged into sheets. Clay minerals are the typical weathering product of feldspar minerals and make up a major portion of many soils. The photo shows clay sediments that have dried in the sun to produce "mudcracks".
A brown or black sedimentary rock that forms from accumulated plant debris. A combustible rock that contains at least 50% (by weight) carbon compounds.
The process of converting solid coal into a gas, usually by heating or by the introduction of an oxidizing agent such as oxygen. The gas is then used directly as a fuel, processed into a chemical or converted into a liquid fuel. Coal gasification can occur on Earth's surface in a processing plant or it can occur in unmined coal seams deep underground.
The process of converting solid coal into a liquid fuel such as synthetic crude oil or methanol. There are multiple processes that have been done successfully. They might involve contacting the coal with a catalyst at high temperatures or first converting the coal into a gas and then converting it into a liquid. Two of the main liquds produced are synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel.
An area of low relief along a continental margin that is generally underlain by thick sediments that dip gently towards the ocean. The sediments were derived from the weathering and erosion of elevated areas of the continent and delivered towards the coast by streams. This area usually begins at the coast and extends inland to the first occurrence of elevated land.
A loose accumulation of soil material and rock fragments deposited by a combination of runoff and mass wasting that is often seen at the base of a slope or outcrop. The image shows an accumulation of vein quartz and silty soil in Frederick County, Maryland.
A compression process that reduces the volume of a sediment as accumulating sediment above adds increasing weight. This volume loss occurs by: 1) repositioning the grains into a tighter packing; 2) deforming the grains into a tighter packing; and, 3) squeezing fluids out of the pore spaces. Compaction is one of the first steps in converting a sediment into a sedimentary rock. Normally, compaction preferentially occurs in fine-grained clay and silt layers of a sediment mass. Their grains are initially deposited in random orientations without grain support. These have the most potential for improved packing and deformation.
A cone-shaped volcanic mountain composed of alternating layers of pyroclastic materials and lava flows. Also known as a stratovolcano. Most of the volcanoes in the Cascades Range are stratovolcanoes.
A pure chemical substance made up of at least two different elements. A compound is defined by the elements that it contains, the relative proportions of those elements and its atomic structure.
Cone of Depression
A cone-shaped lowering of the water table around a producing well. As water is pumped the water level in the well falls and width of the cone increases. When pumping stops the cone shrinks in size because water from adjacent lands flows in to fill it.
Confusionite is a rock or a mineral that a person wants to identify but they are unable to identify confidently. The person might be a beginner at specimen identification, or the person might have great experise but the specimen is outside of their range of skills, tools or knowledge. Some specimens are challenging because they do not exhibit the typical characteristics of their species, often because they are a mixture of materials that produce conflicting results (e.g. sometimes barite will effervesce because it naturally contains calcite or because a previous investigator tested the specimen with a piece of calcite from a Mohs hardness set.) Confusionite is most often encountered in the field or in laboratories and offices where x-ray, chemical or microscopic analyses equipment are not readily available. Most students encounter confusionite during geology labe exams. Children are experts at discovering specimens of confusionite because they pick up the unusual specimen instead of the typical.
A clastic sedimentary rock that contains rounded pebble-size particles (greater then two millimeters in diameter). The space between the pebbles is generally filled with smaller particles and/or a chemical cement that binds the rock together.
Alteration of a rock, mainly by heat and reactive fluids, which occurs adjacent to a dike, sill, magma chamber or other magma body. Rock in the area of contact metamorphism might not display foliation because directed pressure is usually not involved. Hornfels is a common rock produced by contact metamorphism.
A line on a map that traces locations where the value of a variable is constant. For example, contour lines of elevation trace points of equal elevation across a topographic map. All points on the "ten foot" contour line are ten feet above sea level. The sample map at left shows crustal thickness in kilometers for North and South America.
A map that shows the change in value of a variable over a geographic area through the use of contour lines. The sample map at left shows crustal thickness in kilometers for North and South America.
A cylindrical piece of rock obtained from a subsurface rock unit by drilling with a hollow drill bit, then brought up to the surface for examination. Samples of sediments, ice and other subsurface materials can also obtained by this method. This word is also used as a verb and an adjective.
The photo shows several pieces of core, about four inches in diameter, that have been sawn in half for flat-surface examination and stored in cardboard core-storage boxes. Cores like this will be arranged in boxes to represent their vertical sequence in the well, measured, carefully described and photographed. The upper left corner of the photo shows some coal that broke into small pieces during drilling and handling. This often occurs with fragile rocks. The top left and bottom right corners of the photo show small signs that represent the number of feet below the surface where this sample was recovered. The core in these boxes represents the depth interval from 3280 feet below surface to 3296 feet below surface. The yellow tag at top left identifies the project for which the core was drilled and the colorful piece of cardboard at left is a color reference. Newsprint has been crumpled and stuffed into the box to hold the core in place and prevent additional breakage.
1) The barren rock that surrounds a mineral deposit. It is a term that is less specific and more geographically extensive than "host rock".
2) The rock surrounding an igneous intrusion.
An imperceptibly slow, steady, downward movement of soil and rock material on a slope. The shear stress that drives the movement is strong enough to deform but too weak to cause failure. Creep is often most active during times of the year when moisture and temperatures facilitate movement. Curved tree trunks, tilted posts, leaning walls, cracked masonry, cracked pavement and surface ripples can be signs of creep.
A sedimentary structure in which a horizontal rock unit is composed of inclined layers. Sand deposited on the downwind side of a sand dune or sand deposited on the downcurrent side of a rivermouth bar will likely produce a horizontal rock unit composed of inclined layers. The tilt of the beds have nothing to do with post-depositional deformation.
A liquid hydrocarbon produced from natural underground reservoirs. It might also include liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Crude oil can be refined into a number of petroleum products which include: heating oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, lubricants, asphalt, ethane, propane, butane, and many other products.
Cubic Feet Per Second
A unit of measure frequently used to quantify the rate of flow of water in a stream. It is equal to a volume of water that would pass through a cross-section that is one foot high and one foot wide flowing at an average velocity of one foot per second.
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