Geological Terms Beginning With "T"
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An accumulation of angular rock debris at the base of a cliff or steep slope that was produced by physical weathering. The image shows a portion of the talus apron that surrounds Fajada Butte in Chaco Valley, New Mexico.
Tanzanite is a rare and popular blue variety of zoisite produced from a small location in the African country of Tanzania. It is a birthstone for the month of December and is an alternative stone for blue sapphire.
Also known as "oil sand". A porous sand or sandstone that contains asphalt or bitumen within its pore spaces. Sometimes the name "oil sand" is used for a deposit in which the hydrocarbon is in a liquid form and the name "tar sand" is reserved for those deposits in which the hydrocarbon is in the form of solid asphalt or bitumen.
The study of processes that move and deform Earth's crust.
Tektites are fragments of ejecta produced when an asteroid struck Earth about 800,000 years ago. The impact melted the target rock and scattered a black glass in a strewn field across Southeast Asia.
A general term used for fragments of volcanic rock and lava of any size that have been blown into the air by the force of a volcanic eruption. Tephra can include large blocks and bombs and particle sizes down to volcanic dust. Larger materials generally fall near the vent but dust-size particles can be carried for hundreds of miles by the wind.
A mound of unsorted glacial till that usually crosses a valley and marks the furthest advance of a glacier. Also called an "end moraine". The photo shows the terminal moraine of the Nellie Juan Glacier near Prince William Sound, Alaska. The two-mile long lagoon between the terminal moraine and the glacier's terminus is filled with seawater.
The lower end of a glacier, often called the "snout". The photo shows the terminus of the Pedersen Glacier
One of the four rocky planets closest to the sun, which include Mars, Venus, Earth and Mercury.
Sediment that is derived from the weathering of rocks which are exposed above sea level. These sediments typically consist of clay, silt, sand and gravel and are deposited above sea level or carried by rivers, glaciers or wind into the ocean. The image shows terrigenous sediment deposited on the Badwater alluvial fan of Death Valley.
The visible characteristics of a rock which include its grain size, grain orientation, rounding, angularity, porosity, foliation, crystallinity, presence of vesicles and other physical attributes of the mineral grains that make up the rock. The image shows the texture of a hand-specimen of conglomerate that can be seen at the top of our article on conglomerate.
Water quality is not defined by chemistry alone. If natural waters are withdrawn for use they should be returned to the environment at approximately the same temperature. An increase or decrease in temperature can have an adverse effect upon plants, animals and chemical balances. Returning water to a stream at a different temperature than it was withdrawn is known as thermal pollution. For example, coal-fired power plants use water in the production of steam that turns turbines. That water is then cooled in the large cooling towers before it is returned to the environment. The image shows a steam electric power plant where thermal release must be monitored and controlled.
A reverse fault that has a dip of less than 45 degrees. A reverse fault is a fault with vertical movement and an inclined fault plane. The block above the fault has moved upwards relative to the block below the fault. Thrust and reverse faults are the typical structural style of convergent plate boundaries and portions of the crust that are under compression.
Thulite is a rare, pink, gem-quality variety of zoisite. It can be cut into beautiful cabochons, beads, small sculptures, and other lapidary items.
Currents of water that are produced in response to a rising or falling tide. These currents can flow into or out of a bay, delivering the rising water or removing the falling water.
A glacier with a terminus that ends in body of water that is influenced by tides. These glaciers may calve and produce icebergs that are carried away at ebb tide.
A broad flat area, very close to sea level that is flooded and drained with each rise and fall of the tide.
A term that is incorrectly used in reference to a tsunami and a storm surge. Tsunamis have nothing to do with the tides. Storm surges may sometimes combine with a tide but the word "tidal wave" is inappropriate in any usage.
Also known as "bertrandite," Tiffany stone is a beautiful material that is thought to be an opalized fluorite. Found at one beryllium mine site in Utah.
Tiger's eye is a material that forms when quartz replaces crocidolite. When it is cut into a cabochon with its fibrous structure parallel to the bottom of the stone, a chatoyance, or cat's-eye effect, is produced.
Tiger iron is a rock composed of alternating bands of silver hematite, gold tiger's eye, and red jasper. It is cut into attractive and interesting cabochons, beads, spheres, and other lapidary items.
An unsorted sediment deposited directly by a glacier as it melts in retreat and not reworked by meltwater.
A bulge of soil that develops at the base of a landslide. It occurs where the moving mass overruns the surface exposure of the slip plane. Often people see a mound of soil develop on a slope and grade it level or remove it. Removing the toe of a slide can cause the slide to accerate because the toe provides support.
Topaz is a popular gem. It is usually clear to amber in color when mined. It can be heated, coated, or irradiated to produce other colors that include "Swiss blue," "London blue," bright pink, and soft pink.
A map that shows the change in elevation over a geographic area through the use of contour lines. The contour lines trace points of equal elevation across the map. See also: contour line and contour map.
The shape of Earth's surface or the geometry of landforms in a geographic area.
Tourmaline is a silicate mineral that occurs in a wide range of attractive colors. It is a very durable gem material that is popular with jewelry makers.
An element that is present in very small quantities. Trace elements in a mineral or a gemstone are elements that are not an essential component of that mineral's chemical composition. For example, trace amounts of chromium can produce a green color in beryl and when enough chromium is present to produce a rich green color, the material can be called "emerald".
A fine-grained volcanic rock that contains large amounts of potassium feldspar.
Transport of sediment by wind or water in which the sediment remains in contact with the ground or bed of the stream, moving by rolling or sliding.
A strike-slip fault that connects offsets in a mid-ocean ridge.
An advance of the sea over land areas. Possible causes include a rise in sea level or subsidence.
A slope failure in which the moving mass travels along a roughly planar surface with little rotation or backward tilting.
A pipeline that carries natural gas from a region where it is produced to a region where it is stored or consumed.
A process of plants removing water from the soil and releasing it into the atmosphere through their leaves.
Sand dunes that are oriented at right angles to the direction of the prevailing wind. These form where vegetation is sparse and the sand supply is abundant.
A sedimentary or tectonic structure where oil and/or natural gas has accumulated. These are structural highs where a porous rock unit is capped by an impermeable rock unit. Oil and gas trapped within the porous rock unit migrate to a high point in the structure because of their low density.
Calcium carbonate deposits which form in caves and around hot springs where carbonate-bearing waters are exposed to the air. The water evaporates, leaving a small deposit of calcium carbonate.
A drainage pattern in which streams intersect at right angles. This forms in areas of long parallel valleys such as in folded mountain belts. Rivers occupy the valleys and tributary streams join them at right angles.
A long, narrow, deep depression in the ocean floor that parallels a convergent plate boundary involving at least one oceanic plate.
A point where three lithospheric plates meet. Triple junctions can be areas of unusual tectonic activity due to the differential motions of the three intersecting plates.
Tripping is the work of pulling, removing and replacing all of the pipe down the hole of an oil or gas well when the bit or other piece of the drill string must be changed. "Tripping out" is the process of removing the pipe and "tripping in" is the process of replacing it.
Small creatures that have adapted to a permanent life in a cave. They are so well adapted to life in a cave that they would be unable to survive in the surface environment. To survive in the darkness troglobites have highly-developed senses of hearing, touch and smell. Many troglobites have lost their sight and their pigments.
Tsavorite is a calcium-rich garnet known for its brilliant green color. It sometimes serves as an alternative stone to emerald. It is the most important green garnet and one of the rarest and most valuable colored stones.
A large wave that is produced by the sudden displacment of a large volume of water. This type of displacement is usually caused by an earthquake, but can also be produced by: submarine landslides, subaerial landslides, explosive volcanic eruptions, iceberg calving, atmospheric pressure changes or asteroid impacts. These events suddenly depress or elevate a large volume of water, then gravity causes the energy of that displacemenet to propagate away from the source. Most tsunamis originate in the ocean but they can be produced in smaller bodies of water. Tsunamis travel at high speeds for great distances (often crossing ocean basisns) and can cause great destruction when they reach land.
A rock composed of pyroclastic materials that have been ejected from a volcano. In many instances these fragments are still hot when they land, producing a "welded" rock mass. Picture of Tuff.
A vertical sequence of sediments deposited by a turbidity current. Because the largest particles of the current settle first a turbidite will be graded deposits with coarsest grain sizes at the bottom and finer grain sizes going upwards.
A mixture of sediment particles and water that flows down the continental slope. These high density currents can reach great speeds and generally erode loose sediments from the seafloor beneath them. See also: Density Current.
An irregular state of fluid flow in which the particle paths cross one another and may even travel in opposing directions. (Compare with Laminar Flow.)
A copper mineral with a bright blue to blue-green color. The color is so familiar and liked that the word "turquoise" is used in the English language as the name of a color. Only a few gems have a color this familiar.
Decades ago, this agate was named "Turritella" after the fossil snails that it contains. That name is incorrect because the snails were misidentified. The proper name should be "Elimia agate" after the snail Elimia tenera.
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