You have probably heard of the Richter Scale for measuring earthquakes, the Saffir-Simpson Scale for hurricanes and the Fujita Scale for tornadoes. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is used to compare the size of explosive volcanic eruptions.
“Multinational research team finds that sea floor earthquake zones can act like a “magnifying lens,” focusing and strengthening tsunamis beyond what was through possible.” Quoted from the University of Southern California press release.
Many energy companies would like to export natural gas as LNG from the United States to countries where market prices are much higher. However, United States manufacturers object because they fear that LNG exports will raise domestic prices.
Not mentioned in the FuelFix article are: 1) many new conventional gas discoveries in Africa, Australia, South America and Indonesia that could compete with LNG exports from the United States; 2) the enormous untapped shale gas potential in other parts of the world; and, 3) natural gas throughout the world that is currently being flared. Will LNG export terminals for United States gas make economic sense five years from now?
“Indonesia is the most populous country in Southeast Asia and the fourth most populous country in the world. The country struggles to attract sufficient investment to meet growing domestic energy consumption because of inadequate infrastructure and a complex regulatory environment. At the same time, it was the world’s largest exporter of coal by weight and the eighth largest exporter of natural gas in 2011.” Quoted from the Energy Information Administration report.
The largest volcanic eruption in the past two million years was an enormous blast at Toba volcano in Indonesia about 74,000 years ago. An article on the Phys.org website explores the impact of the eruption.
“The massive earthquake that struck under the Indian Ocean southwest of Sumatra on April 11, 2012, came as a surprise to seismologists and left them scrambling to figure out exactly what had happened. Analysis of the seismic waves generated during the event has now revealed a complicated faulting process unlike anything seen before.” Quoted from the University of Santa Cruz press release.
This interesting article reviews some of the world’s important chokepoints for the transport of crude oil.
From the article: “Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of the vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.”
Kelimutu is a volcano with three summit lakes on Flores Island, Indonesia. The lakes are typically different colors and often change colors. These color variations are though to be caused by fumaroles below the lakes which causes changes in water chemistry.
“A new study, funded by the National Science Foundation, shows that the residents of [the Sumatra] region are at risk from yet another potentially deadly natural phenomenon – major volcanic eruptions.” Quoted from the Oregon State press release.