“The pyroclastic flow deposits red-hot material on the slope of the volcano. After a few minutes, air heated by the deposit establishes a convective regime and due to the speed of the rising air a series of small tornadoes are formed.” Quoted from the Photovolcanica video release.
“Animations of Pyroclastic flows resulting from collapses of the viscous andesitic lava lobe erupting from a summit crater of Sinabung Volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia.” From the Photovolcanica YouTube Channel.
A volcanic eruption around the year 1258 produced distinctive ash falls in both Antarctica and Greenland. It was a blast unprecedented in human history but historians did not record the eruption. Where did it happen?
Paluweh Volcano in Indonesia has been erupting since late 2012 with most of the debris and ash flowing to the south side of the volcano. In August a pyroclastic flow went down the north side of the volcano, killing five people. NASA’s Earth Observatory has before and after satellite images of the island.
“Multinational research team finds that sea floor earthquake zones can act like a “magnifying lens,” focusing and strengthening tsunamis beyond what was through possible.” Quoted from the University of Southern California press release.
You have probably heard of the Richter Scale for measuring earthquakes, the Saffir-Simpson Scale for hurricanes and the Fujita Scale for tornadoes. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is used to compare the size of explosive volcanic eruptions.
Many energy companies would like to export natural gas as LNG from the United States to countries where market prices are much higher. However, United States manufacturers object because they fear that LNG exports will raise domestic prices.
Not mentioned in the FuelFix article are: 1) many new conventional gas discoveries in Africa, Australia, South America and Indonesia that could compete with LNG exports from the United States; 2) the enormous untapped shale gas potential in other parts of the world; and, 3) natural gas throughout the world that is currently being flared. Will LNG export terminals for United States gas make economic sense five years from now?
“Indonesia is the most populous country in Southeast Asia and the fourth most populous country in the world. The country struggles to attract sufficient investment to meet growing domestic energy consumption because of inadequate infrastructure and a complex regulatory environment. At the same time, it was the world’s largest exporter of coal by weight and the eighth largest exporter of natural gas in 2011.” Quoted from the Energy Information Administration report.
Night video of explosive eruptions at Batu Tara Volcano, located about 50 kilometers off the cost of Lembata Island, Indonesia. Visit Photovolcanica,com for more information and photos of Batu Tara.
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