The impact of a large object onto the lunar surface in September, 2013 produced a flash and an afterglow that was bright enough to have been seen from Earth with the unaided eye for about eight seconds. The flash was the result of the tremendous impact speed generating enough heat to melt the target and impactor
“Global map of crustal thickness of the moon derived from gravity data obtained by NASA’s GRAIL spacecraft. The lunar near side is represented on the left hemisphere. The far side is represented in the right hemisphere.”
NASA’s GRAIL mission has solved one of the mysteries of the Moon. “Why is the Moon’s gravity is uneven?… It appears that asteroid impacts have created patches of very high density rock in the subsurface.
“For the past 8 years, NASA astronomers have been monitoring the Moon for signs of explosions caused by meteoroids hitting the lunar surface. [...] They’ve just seen the biggest explosion in the history of the program.”
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