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Geology of Gems

Geology of Gems

by Eugenii Ya. Kievlenko

English Edition

Only $159.99
Eugenii Kievlenko (1923-2000) was a prominent Russian geologist with extensive experience in the exploration, discovery, and evaluation of mineral deposits of all kinds. He discovered dozens of gemstone deposits in various parts of Russia and has been credited with reviving the gemstone-cutting industry of the country.

Geology of Gems is the first comprehensive English language publication to place gem deposits into a concise geological and genetic framework which provides an understanding of existing deposits and the environments of their formation. The book is international in scope and covers most major gem deposits, although there is a strong emphasis on former USSR and Russian Federation deposits.

Eighteen chapters are devoted to specific gems (precious corundum, beryl, etc.). Each chapter contains historical and mineralogical data, with discussions regarding chromophores responsible for various varieties. Major gem deposits and districts are described for each country relative to a geological-genetic classification. The text is liberally illustrated with geological and geographic maps, sections (with scales) and other figures, as well as with numerous excellent color photographs.

Very few books have been written about the geology of gem deposits. Any person who wants to be a “gem hunter” will benefit from reading this book. It contains information that is found nowhere else. This English edition is an easy-to-read and geologically accurate translation.

Geology of Gems
Table of Contents

Forward to the English Edition
11
Acknowledgements
12
Foreword
13
1. General Data on Gems
14
    1.1 Classification of Gems
14
    1.2 Jewels
18
    1.3 Jewelry-Industrial and Industrial Stones
32
    1.4 Synthetic Crystals - Substitutes of Natural Gems
33
2. Corundum (Ruby and Sapphire)
38
    2.1 General
38
    2.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
42
        2.2.1 Magmatic Deposits
42
          Basalt and Alkaline Basalt Extrusions
43
          Alkaline Basic Lamprophyres
46
        2.2.2 Pegmatite Deposits (Syenite Pegmatites)
48
        2.2.3 Contact Metasomatic Deposits
49
          Endoskarns in Marbles and Calciphyres
49
          Micaceous Anorthosites in Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks
57
        2.2.4 Metamorphic Deposits
61
        2.2.5 Placer Deposits
61
3. Beryl
71
    3.1 General
71
    3.2 Emerald
73
        3.2.1 General
73
        3.2.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
77
          3.2.2.1 Pegmatite Deposits
77
          3.2.2.2 Greisen Deposits
79
            Ultramafic Greisens
80
            Carbonate-Black Shale Greisens
95
          3.2.2.3 Hydrothermal Deposits
96
          3.2.2.4 Placer Deposits
102
    3.3 Aquamarine and Other Jewelry Beryls
102
        3.3.1 General
102
        3.3.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
105
          3.3.2.1 Pegmatite Deposits
105
            Miarolitic Granite Pegmatites
105
            Microcline-Beryl-Muscovite Vugless Pegmatites
114
          3.3.2.2 Greisen Deposits
114
          3.3.2.3 Post-Volcanic Exhalative-Hydrothermal Deposits
118
          3.3.2.4 Placer Deposits
119
4. Precious Opal
120
    4.1 General
120
    4.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
124
        4.2.1 Hydrothermal Post-Volcanic Deposits
124
        4.2.2 Supergene Deposits
128
5. Topaz
132
    5.1 General
132
    5.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
135
        5.2.1 Pegmatite Deposits
135
        5.2.2 Greisen Deposits
145
        5.2.3 Hydrothermal Deposits
145
          Post-Intrusive Plutonogenic Deposits
145
          Post-Volcanic Exhalation Hydrothermal Deposits
147
        5.2.4 Placer Deposits
149
6. Tourmaline
151
    6.1 General
151
    6.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
154
        6.2.1 Pegmatite Deposits
154
        6.2.2 Contact Metasomatic Deposits
171
        6.2.3 Metamorphic Deposits
172
        6.2.4 Placer Deposits
172
7. Spinel
173
    7.1 General
173
    7.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
175
        7.2.1 Magnesian Skarn Deposits
175
        7.2.2 Placer Deposits
180
8. Garnet
181
    8.1 General
181
    8.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
186
        8.2.1 Magmatic Deposits
186
          Kimberlites
186
          Basaltic Eruptive Breccias
191
          Felsic and Intermediate Extrusive Rocks
193
        8.2.2 Pegmatite Deposits
194
        8.2.3 Contact Metasomatic Deposits
195
          Exo- and Endoskarns
195
          Apogabbro Metasomatites
196
        8.2.4 Hydrothermal Deposits
198
          Plutonic Deposits in Ultramafic Rocks
199
          Post-Volcanic Deposits in Felsic Extrusions
202
        8.2.5 Metamorphic Deposits
202
        8.2.6 Placer Deposits
204
9. Peridot (Chrysolite)
208
    9.1 General
208
    9.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
209
        9.2.1 Magmatic Deposits
209
          Kimberlites
210
          Basalts and Alkaline Basaltoids
212
        9.2.2 Hydrothermal Deposits
215
          Ultramafic Alkaline Massifs of the Central Type
215
          Ultramafic Massifs of the Alpine Type
218
        9.2.3 Placer Deposits
219
10. Amethyst
221
    10.1 General
221
    10.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
223
      10.2.1 Pegmatite Deposits
223
      10.2.2 Iron-Ore Skarn Deposits
225
      10.2.3 Hydrothermal Deposits
226
        Plutonogenic Deposits
226
        Volcanogenic Deposits
233
        Telethermal Deposits
236
      10.2.4 Placer Deposits
236
11. Turquoise
237
    11.1 General
237
    11.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
240
      11.2.1 Deposits in Magmatic Rocks
240
      11.2.2 Deposits in Sandy-Shale Rocks
250
12. Amber
255
    12.1 General
255
    12.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
261
      12.2.1 Biogenic-Sedimentary Deposits
261
      12.2.2 Placer Deposits
262
13. Lazurite
273
    13.1 General
273
    13.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
276
      13.2.1 Deposits in Magnesian Skarns
276
      13.2.2 Placer Deposits
287
14. Jadeite
288
    14.1 General
288
    14.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
291
      14.2.1 Contact Metasomatic Deposits in Ultramafic Rocks
291
      14.2.2 Placer Deposits
302
15. Nephrite
303
    15.1 General
303
    15.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
306
      15.2.1 Contact Metasomatic Deposits
306
        Deposits in Serpentinized Ultramafic Rocks
307
        Deposits in Magnesian Skarns
319
      15.2.2 Placer Deposits
323
16. Charoite
326
    16.1 General
326
    16.2 Geology and Genesis of the Sirenevy Kamen Deposit
327
17. Malachite
333
    17.1 General
333
    17.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
335
      17.2.1 Deposits in Oxidized Zones of Copper Sulfide Ores in Carbonate-bearing Rocks
335
      17.2.2 Placer Deposits
343
18. Chalcedony
345
    18.1 General
345
      18.1.1 Agate
347
      18.1.2 Carneol, Carnelian, and Sard
350
      18.1.3 Chrysoprase
351
      18.1.4 Other Decorative Varieties
353
    18.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
355
      18.2.1 Post-Volcanic Hydrothermal Deposits
355
        Chalcedony deposits in basic and intermediate volcanogenic rocks
355
        Agate deposits in silicic volcanogenic rocks
367
      18.2.2 Diagenetic and Catagenic Deposits
370
      18.2.3 Deposits in Weathered Crusts
373
        Chrysoprase deposits in nickel-bearing weathered crusts on ultramafic rocks
373
        Cacholong deposits in weathered crusts
377
      18.2.4 Placer Deposits
377
        Eluvial and eluvial-deluvial placer deposits
377
        Agate-bearing conglomerates
378
        Alluvial placer deposits
379
        Shoreline placer deposits
382
19. Rhodonite
383
    19.1 General
383
    19.2 Geological Genetic Types of Deposits
386
      19.2.1 Deposits in Calcic Skarns
386
      19.2.2 Hydrothermal Deposits
388
      19.2.3 Metamorphic Deposits
389
      19.2.4 Placer Deposits
398
20. Economic-Geological Types of Gemstone Deposits and the Principal Regularities in their Spatial Distribution
400
      Magmatic deposits
401
      Pegmatites
401
      Gemstone deposits in ultramafic rocks
406
      Magnesian skarns
407
      Hydrothermal deposits
408
      Metamorphogenic deposits
408
      Weathered crusts
408
      Placer deposits
409
Abbreviations
414
Reference
415