geology McAfee SECURE sites help keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud, spyware, spam, viruses and online scams
Topo Maps Wall Maps Online Maps Road Maps Tumbled Stones Rock, Gem and Mineral Kits Rock Hammers Gold Pans Hand Lens
Roadside Geology Gold Books Gem & Mineral Books Kids Books Geology Books Waterproof Paper

Home » Store » Geology Books » Living Mountains

Living Mountains

 
How and Why Volcanoes Erupt

How and Why Volcanoes Erupt


With Kornprobst's lucid prose and Laverne's 46 vivid watercolors, readers can see and understand the workings of different types of volcanoes. Written for a general audience, this book gives a deeper understanding of some of the most powerful forces humans have ever witnessed. This 7 1/2" x 9 1/2" paperback has 101 pages that are packed with detailed information about these mysterious fire mountains. See table of contents at the bottom of this page. Jacques Kornprobst and Christine Laverne, authors.
Only $19.99

Living Mountains: How and Why Volcanoes Erupt
Table of Contents

CONSTRUCTING VOLCANOES

1

Simple and Complex Volcanoes

1

Lavas

2
    Fluid Lavas: Flows and Lava Lakes
3
    Pahoehoe Flows, 'A'a Flows, and Ropy Lavas
3
    Lava Tunnels
4
    Columnar Jointing
5
    Viscous Lavas: Domes and Petaloid Flows
8
    Simple Domes, Complex Domes, and Cryptodomes
9
    Prismatic Columns in Viscous Lava
11

Volcanic Ejecta

11
    Bombs, Lapilli, and Ash
11
    Inclusions and Xenoliths
12
    Pyroclastic Formations
12
    Ignimbrites
14

Why Explosive Eruptions Occur

15
    Volcanic Gases
15
    Gas Expansion
16
    Strombolian Eruptions and Lava Fountains
17
    Plinian Eruptions
20
    Pelean Eruptions
20
    Surges
23
    When Rising Magma Meets Groundwater
23

Carbonic Eruptions

26
    Percolation of Carbon Dioxide through Earth's Crust
26
    Disruption of Deep Aquifer Layers
26
    Overturn of Water in Crater Lakes
27

The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Climate

28

Repose Period of a Volcano and Fumarolic Activity

29

Submarine Volcanoes: Eruptions beneath the Sea

29
    Hyaloclastites
30
    Pillow Lavas and Lava Ponds
30
    Black Smokers
33

Volcanic Collapse

34
    Lahars
34
    Flank Slides
35
    Calderas
36

WHERE MAGMA ORIGINATES

38

The Earth's Concentric Structure

38

Partial Melting of Rocks

40
    Migration of a Melt
42
    Formation of Magma Chambers
42

The Conditions of Partial Melting

43

Mantle Convection and Plate Tectonics

44
    Seafloor Spreading
45
    Subduction
47

Mantle Upwelling: Partial Melting due to Reduced Pressure

47
    Formation of the Oceanic Crust
48
    Hot Spot Volcanism
49

Subduction: Partial Melting due to the Addition of Water

51

Magma Pooling: Partial Melting due to Increased Temperature

53

VOLCANIC ROCK DIVERSITY

55

Cooling History

55
    Obsidian
56
    Microlitic and Doleritic Textures
57
    Aphyric versus Porphyritic Texture
58

Chemical Diversity

59
    Differences in Source Material and Degree of Partial Melting
60
    Magma Mixing and Contamination
61
    Bimodal Volcanism
61
    Magma Mixing or Hybridization
61
    Contamination
62
    Magmatic Differentiation by Fractional Crystallization
62
    Crystallization in a Magma Chamber
64
    Unraveling a Lava's History
67
    Trace Elements
67
    Isotopic Ratios
69

DATING VOLCANIC EVENTS

72

History

72

Relative Chronology

73

Absolute Chronology

74
    Carbon-14 Dating
74
    Potassium-Argon Dating
75
    Thermoluminescence
76

PREDICTING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

78

Estimating the Threat

78

Precursors of Eruptions

79
    Seismic Precursors
79
    Inflation of Volcanoes
80
    Tilt Meters
80
    Displacement Meters
80
    Electronic Distance Meters
81
    Spatial Altimetry
81
    Thermal and Chemical Precursors
82
    Magnetic Precursors
83

Volcano Surveillance Networks

83

Glossary

89

Index

95

 

More Geology Books
Geology of the Lake Superior Region
101 American Geo-Sites
Glacial Lake Missoula and its Humongous Floods
Glacial Lake Missoula
Northwest Exposures
Northwest Exposures
Ice Age Mammals of North America
Ice Age Mammals
Colorado Gold
Colorado
Gold
Colorado Rockhounding
Colorado Rockhounding
Finding Fault in California
Finding Fault in California
Leadville: A Miner's Epic
Leadville: A Miner's Epic
The Southwest Inside Out
The Southwest Inside Out
Chasing Lava
Chasing
Lava
How Geysers Work
How Geysers
Work
Landforms of Southern Utah
Landforms of
S. Utah
The Sternberg Fossil Hunters
A Dinosaur Dynasty
Fire Mountains of the West
Fire Mountains
of the West
Rocks from Space
Rocks from Space
Forensic Geology and Criminal Investigation
Evidence from the Earth
How and Why Volcanoes Erupt
Living
Mountains
Weather Extremes of the West
Weather Extremes
Yogo, The Great American Sapphire
Yogo, American Sapphire
Atlantic Coast Beaches
Atlantic Coast Beaches
Rock Art Savvy
Rock Art
Savvy
Colorado's Climax molybdenum mine
Colorado's Climax Mine
Meteorite Hunting: How to find treasure from space
Meteorite Hunting
Meteorites
Meteorites


© 2005-2013 Geology.com. All Rights Reserved.
Images, code and content of this website are property of Geology.com. Use without permission is prohibited. Pages on this site are protected by Copyscape.