Bakken Formation: News, Map, Videos and Information Sources
Throughout history, most great oil and gas fields were "discovered". The Bakken was "unlocked" through innovation.
What is the Bakken Formation?
The Bakken Formation is one of the largest contiguous deposits of oil and natural gas in the
United States. It is an interbedded sequence of black shale, siltstone and sandstone that underlies
large areas of northwestern North Dakota, northeastern Montana, southern Saskatchewan and
Bakken Formation Map
The Bakken Formation underlies large areas of northwestern North Dakota, northeastern Montana, southern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. The green area on this map shows the approximate extent of the Bakken oil play.
The Bakken was deposited within the Williston Basin and is Late
Devonian to Early Mississippian in age.
The Bakken Formation consists of a lower shale member, a middle sandstone member and an upper shale member.
The shales are organic-rich and of marine origin. They are rich source rocks for oil and natural
gas. All three members of the Bakken Formation have been known to yield oil and natural gas.
Just a few years ago in 2007, the Bakken was considered a marginal to submarginal resource because the oil and
natural gas are are locked in a rock formation with a low permeability. However, advances in drilling and recovery
technology such as horizontal drilling and hydrofracturing have transformed the Bakken into a prolific oil and natural gas producer.
Since then the Bakken has propelled North Dakota oil production to record levels, moving the state to the position of
#2 oil producer in the United States. The only state that produces more crude oil is Texas.
The Bakken Formation has also given a major boost to the North Dakota economy and reduced unemployment in the state to very low levels.
The Bakken resources is expected to be productive for decades and make a major contribution to the energy independence of the United States.
Advances in drilling and well stimulation made the Bakken Formation a viable oil and gas resource. Horizontal drilling enables wells to have a much longer "pay zone" than a traditional vertical well. Hydraulic fracturing produces porosity in the rock unit that facilitates movement of oil or gas to the well. Together, these methods allow a single well
to drain a much larger volume of rock and more efficiently recover the oil and gas resource.
The USGS Assessment for the Bakken Formation
estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85
trillion cubic feet of associated / dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids
in the United States portion of the Bakken Formation.
These resources are contained within both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. The Bakken Formation
in Canada contains additional resources and has been called one of the largest oil fields in Canada.
In early 2008 only a few wells had been drilled into the Bakken and its viability as a resource was uncertain.
However, by the end of 2012, thousands of successful wells made it one of the most important crude oil sources
in the history of North America.
Throughout history, most great oil and gas fields have been discovered. The Bakken Formation was unlocked through innovation.
Find it on Geology.com
More from Geology.com
Geology News is displayed on the right side of our homepage and updated daily.
Rock Bags - Durable field bags with pockets for carrying maps, books, specimens and tools.
Wall Maps - World maps, United States maps, continent maps, maps of individual states.
Difficult Rocks - Elementary students find lots of rocks that you will not be able to identify.
Diamonds: Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses and diamond discoveries.
Photos of Geysers from around the world with information about height, eruption interval, more.
Bakken Oil Production
Oil production from the Bakken Formation in North Dakota has been rising rapidly making the state the #2 oil producer in the United States. Data from: North Dakota Geological Survey.
Bakken Natural Gas Flaring
Northwestern North Dakota has one of the lowest population densities in the United States; however, this night lights image from NASA shows the area has hundreds of points of illumination. Many of these lights are Bakken Formation oil wells where natural gas that does not have a pipeline to market is being flared. Flaring is common practice in the oil and gas industry. Many object to this practice because it wastes natural gas and contributes green house gases to the atmosphere. Enlarge image. Source image by NASA.
Bakken Formation Oil:
The Bakken is one of the largest oil finds that the US Geological Survey has ever assessed.
Although this video was produced in 2008 the information contained within it was a great prediction of Bakken Formation assessment and development.
Bakken Oil Boom:
This video explains the impact of the Bakken Oil boom on the real estate industry. AP Video.
Generalized stratigraphy of Paleozoic rocks in the Williston Basin of Montana. From Montana
Board of Oil and Gas (source).