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Japan at Night
NASA Earth Observatory

The contrast of the bright lights against the dark landscape makes this image of Japan a favorite astronaut photo.

Satellite Images of Earth at Night
Geology.com

Japan stands out on this satellite view of Asia at night, along with the west coast of Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Bangkok. The route of the Trans-Siberian Railroad can be seen as a light line across the otherwise dark area of northern Russia. High city densities in eastern China, Indonesia, India and the eastern coast of Australia can clearly be seen. Image by NASA.

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Cave of the Hands
Cave of the Hands
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Mount Etna
Mount Etna
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Diamonds
Diamonds
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
The Brewery Rock ?
diatomite
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Chalcopyrite
Chalcopyrite
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Google Earth - Free
Download Google Earth Free
Free Google Earth software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Gemstones
Gemstones
Gemstones - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Meteorites
Meteorites
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Wall Maps
Wall Maps
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Copper vs COVID-19
Copper vs COVID-19
Copper Kills COVID-19 and many other pathogens to limit the spread of disease.
Rhyolite
Rhyolite
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Quartzite
quartzite
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Ilmenite
Ilmenite
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Obsidian
Obsidian
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Rock and Mineral Kits
Rock Kits
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
What Is Earth Science?
What Is Earth Science?
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
100+ Gemstones
colored stones
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Gems from Space
Gems from Space
Extraterrestrial Gems - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
Geology Tools
Geology Tools
Geology Tools Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Lo'ihi Seamount
Lo'ihi Seamount
The Next Hawaiian Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo'ihi.
Volcanoes
Volcanoes
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Crater of Diamonds
Crater of Diamonds
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Mineral Hardness
Mohs Hardness Test
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Rocks
Rocks
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Rare Earth Elements
Rare Earth Elements
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Largest Volcanoes
Largest Volcanoes
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Rocks on Mars
Rocks on Mars
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Chalk
chalk
Chalk is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Fire Opal
Fire Opal
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Zircon
Zircon
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Minerals
Minerals
Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
Don*t Go To Jail
Don't Go To Jail
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Hardness Picks
hardness picks
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Uses of Marble
Uses of Marble
The Uses of Marble are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Geology News
geology news
Geology News - News about geology, earth science, energy, and more. Updated daily.
Horizontal Drilling
Horizontal Drilling
Horizontal Drilling has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
Ruby and Sapphire
ruby and sapphire
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Rock Tumblers
Rock Tumblers
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Birthstones
Birthstones
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Pyroxene Minerals
Pyroxene Minerals
Pyroxene Minerals are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Opals
Opal
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Largest Earthquake
Largest Earthquake
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
Record Lightning
Lake Maracaibo Lightning
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
Debris Flows
Debris Flows
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Granite
Granite
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Types Of Eruptions
Types Of Eruptions
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
San Andreas Fault
What is the San Andreas Fault?
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Geology Books
Geology Books
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Volcanic Explosivity
Volcanic Explosivity
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Fool*s Gold
Fool*s Gold
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Morganite
Morganite
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
American Gemstones
U.S. Gemstones
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Bear Attacks
Bear Attacks
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
UV Mineral Lamp
UV Mineral Lamp
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Uses of Talc
uses of talc
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Tallest Tsunami
Tallest Tsunami
Tallest Tsunami - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Geodes
Geodes
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Rock Art
Rock Art
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Corundum
Corundum
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Mars Meteorites
Mars Meteorites
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites traveling around the red planet.
Labradorite
Labradorite
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Blue Flames
Blue Flames
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
E.T. Volcanoes
Solar System Volcanoes
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
US Diamond Mines
US Diamond Mines
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Largest Diamonds
world's largest diamonds
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
Ant Hill Garnets
Ant Hill Garnets
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
The Acid Test
The Acid Test
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Sliding Rocks
Sliding Rocks
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
Olivine
Olivine
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Shale
Shale
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Mineraloids
Mineraloids
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Gold Pans
Gold Pans
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
Misconception
Diamonds from Coal
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
Cinnabar
Cinnabar
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Sand
Sand
Sand is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Coquina
Coquina
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Field Courses
Field Camps
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Great Rift Valley
Great Rift Valley
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Ethiopian Opal
Ethiopian opal
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
Types of Maps
Types of Maps
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Emerald
Emerald
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Teacher Resources
Teacher Resources
Teacher Resources - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
What is Geology?
What is Geology?
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Hematite
Hematite on Mars
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Rhodochrosite
Rhodochrosite
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
What Is The Moho?
What Is The Moho?
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Utica Shale
Utica Shale
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Peridotite
Peridotite
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Gem Silica
Gem Silica
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Uses of Gold
Uses of Gold
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Tourmaline
Tourmaline
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
The British Isles
British Isles
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
Herkimer Diamonds
Herkimer Diamonds
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
Fluorescent Minerals
Fluorescent Minerals
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Tallest Mountain
Tallest Mountain
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Coal Close Up
Coal Through a Microscope
Coal Through a Microscope - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Earthquake Maps
California Earthquake Maps
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Watch out for Ticks!
Ticks
Ticks are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Hand Lens
Hand Lens
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Novarupta
Novarupta
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Grape Agate
Grape Agate
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing increases well yield by fracturing the reservoir rock with fluid injection.
Expansive Soil
Expansive Soil
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Storm Surge
Storm Surge
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Citrine
Citrine
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Mineral Rights
Mineral Rights
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Bear Map
Bear Map
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
Greatest Ocean Depth
Deepest Point in the Ocean
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
Diabase
Diabase
Diabase - the rock selected for Stonehenge and transported 240 miles in 2100 BC.
Charoite
Charoite
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Gifts That Rock
gifts that rock
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Largest Hurricanes
Largest Hurricanes
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Crushed Stone
Crushed Stone
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
Azurite
Azurite
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
Colored Diamonds
Colored Diamonds
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Lapis Lazuli
Lapis Lazuli
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
What is a Geyser?
What is a Geyser?
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Soapstone
Soapstone
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Tanzanite
tanzanite
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Petrified Wood
Petrified Wood
Petrified Wood is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Hurricane Names
Hurricane Names
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
DeLorme Atlas
DeLorme Atlas
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Turquoise
Turquoise
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Hawaiian Hot Spot
Hawaiian Hot Spot
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
Landslides
Landslides
Landslides A USGS fact sheet about landslides and events that trigger them.
Lightning Strikes Map
Lightning Strikes Map
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Molybdenite
Molybdenite
Molybdenite is the primary ore of molybdenum which is used in superalloys and as a lubricant.
Mount Cleveland
Mount Cleveland
Mount Cleveland is an active volcano in the Aleutian Islands and a threat to air traffic.
Homeowners Insurance
Homeowners Insurance
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
What is a Maar?
What is a Maar?
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Methane Hydrate
Methane Hydrate
Methane Hydrate deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
Waterproof Paper
Waterproof Paper
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Tallest Waterfall
Tallest Waterfall
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.