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$8 Billion for Regional Clean Hydrogen Hubs

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. It can be used in cars, in houses, for portable power, and in many more applications. Learn more.

The photo shows a facility where hydrogen is produced from natural gas - which is the source of most hydrogen produced today. U.S. Energy Department photo.

Could People Breathe the Air on Mars?
The Conversation on Yahoo! News
Omens of Decline for Russia's Once World-Leading Energy Industry
Gift Article from The New York Times
Teen Dies After Sand Collapses on Him at Beach Near Toms River, New Jersey
NBC Philadelphia
A 13-Year-Old Dies After Being Buried in Sand at Coral Pink Sand Dunes state park, Utah.
Associated Press
Europe's Famed Bog Bodies Are Starting to Reveal Their Secrets
The Submarine Eruption of Kavachi Volcano
NASA Earth Observatory

Kavachi Volcano in the Southwest Pacific's Solomon Islands has entered an active phase of eruption. NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Story by Sara E. Pratt.

Tonga Volcano Was the Most Ferocious Eruption in 140 Years

Quote from the article: "The volcanic eruption on an island near Tonga in January was as powerful as the 1883 Krakatoa eruption in Indonesia...". Image by Joshua Stevens of NASA Earth Observatory.

What Is the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)?

Volcanic explosivity index: The spheres in the illustration above represent the volume of erupted tephra for some of the most widely-known explosive volcanic eruptions. Although most people believe that Vesuvius (79 AD - the Pompeii eruption), Mount St. Helens (1980), and Mount Pinatubo (1991) were enormous, they are very small compared to ancient eruptions such as Wah Wah Springs, Toba, Yellowstone, or Long Valley Caldera.

California Panel Unanimously Rejects a Plan to Turn Ocean Water into Drinking Water
ABC News
950 Carats of Seam Opal Goodness!
Black Opal Direct

The Ratio of Natural Gas to Crude Oil from the Bakken Region Continues to Climb
Energy Information Administration

A good news story in this is... the amount of natural gas being flared is decreasing. Graphs by the Energy Information Administration.

Oil Fields from Space at Night

The geographic distribution of drilling sites can be mapped from space using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. Natural gas flaring and well site illumination make them stand out - especially in rural areas. These images were produced by NASA using data acquired in April and October 2012. A much higher amount of natural gas was being flared in the Bakken Field at that time.

Mount St. Helens: Revisiting the May 18th, 1980 Eruption - Videos by USGS
USGS Videos

Photos of the Total Lunar Eclipse and "Blood Moon" (May 15 / May 16)
What You Need to Know about the Lunar Eclipse

The Moon moves right to left, passing through the penumbra and umbra, leaving in its wake an eclipse diagram with the times at various stages of the eclipse. Credit: Molly Wasser and Ernie Wright, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Scientific Visualization Studio.

Investors Hold the Purse Strings to Climate Action
The Guardian
Scientists Have Grown Plants in Soil from the Moon Collected by NASA's Apollo Astronauts
The Guardian
Lithium Valley: A Look at the Major Payers Near the Salton Sea Seeking Billions in Funding
Desert Sun
Legal Nuggets: Fragile Minerals and the TSA
The Arkenstone
Why Homes Are Collapsing on Cape Hatteras National Seashore
Assessing Water Infrastructure Investments in California
EOS Earth & Space Science News

In California, aqueducts are used to get water from a place where it exists in ample supply to where it is scarce. Photo of a portion of the California Aqeduct System in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Photo by USGS.

Hallmarks: A Method of Consumer Protection in Precious Metals and Jewelry Markets
Birmingham Assay Office

An Unprecedented View Inside a Hurricane
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Quote from the article: "To improve future tropical cyclone forecasts, researchers sent a remotely operated saildrone into the extreme winds and towering waves around the eye of a category 4 hurricane."
U.S. Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Rose 6% in 2021
Energy Information Administration

This increase followed a rise in economic activity and energy consumption once the initial economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic began to subside. Despite this increase in total emissions, in 2021, they were 274 MMmt (5%) lower than their pre-pandemic level in 2019 and 1,143 MMmt (19%) lower than their 2007 historical peak. Graph by the Energy Information Administration.

Water Levels in Lake Mead, Nevada Reach Historic Low
Reuters in Yahoo! News
Blue Sapphire from Rakwana, Sri Lanka
Gemological Institute of America
Fancy Sapphire

A fancy sapphire is a gem-quality corundum that is any color other than red, blue, or colorless.

Meteorites from the Geoff Notkin Collection - Auction on June 22
Heritage Auctions

Panic Grips Billion-Dollar Trade Over Russian Diamond Bans
Financial Post
A Wake-Up Call from Russia
Largest "White" Diamond Ever Auctioned, Didn't Fetch a Record Price
JCK Online
The 228.32-carat pear-shaped diamond sold for $21.9 million. It probably didn't set a record because it was G in color and VS1 in clarity.
Melting Arctic Ice Opens New Front in Strategic Power Competition
Did you know that intercontinental ballistic missiles launched from North Korea or parts of Russia, and targeting the United States, will fly over the Arctic? The United States has stations in Alaska and Greenland that monitor air traffic over the Arctic.
What is the Northwest Passage?

Map of the Northwest Passage: The red lines through the Arctic archipelago of Canada are possible routes that ships can use to traverse the Northwest Passage in summer and when conditions are right during the winter. This shipping route connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and is an alternative route to the Panama Canal.

A New Origin Story for King Tut's Extraterrestrial Dagger
What makes King Tut's dagger so special is that it is believed to have been forged from an iron meteorite. The research explained in this article indicates that the meteorite might have been found outside of Egypt.
A Giant Sinkhole With a Forest Inside Found in China
Live Science
The Ocean Is Still Sucking Up Carbon - Maybe More Than We Think
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Natural Gas Consumed for U.S. Electric Power Sets a January Record
Energy Information Administration

In January 2022, natural gas consumed for electric power in the United States averaged 31.6 billion cubic feet per day, the highest January average on record and the highest amount for any winter month.

Russia Produces a Third of the World's Diamonds. Now They're Coming Under Scrutiny.
Colored Diamonds: When Small Imperfections Create Spectacular Beauty
IBD Colored Diamonds
Diamonds can occur in a variety of beautiful colors. Images in the wonderful collection of colored diamonds shown above are used with permission of IBD Fancy Colors LLC. They include from top left, going clockwise: a heart-shaped diamond with a Fancy Vivid pink color weighing 0.70 carats; a Fancy Vivid yellowish-orange pear-shaped diamond weighing 0.85 carats; a Fancy Vivid yellow radiant cut diamond weighing 0.56 carats; a Fancy Deep brown radiant cut diamond weighing 1.00 carat; a Fancy Intense blue radiant cut diamond weighing 0.53 carats; and a Fancy Vivid green radiant cut diamond weighing 0.17 carats. They represent some of the finest hues of Fancy-color diamonds.

United Kingdom Energy Report
Energy Information Administration

Since 2011, the United Kingdom has almost eliminated their use of coal and significantly increased their production of renewable and nuclear energy. Graph by the Energy Information Administration.

Oil Giants Sell Dirty Wells to Buyers With Looser Climate Goals
Gift Article from The New York Times
Jamestown, North America's First Permanent English Colony, Could Soon Be Underwater
Wild Fluctuations in Sierra Nevada Snowpack (Which California Relies Upon as a Source of Summer Water)
NASA Earth Observatory

The California mountain range alternated between extreme precipitation and none at all this winter.

Quote from the article: "Snow that falls on the Sierra Nevada each winter becomes a natural reservoir that slowly melts and flows down into the river valleys in spring and summer. In a typical year, this snowpack accounts for about 30 percent of California's water supply. Resource managers count on this snowmelt to fill reservoirs with sufficient water for the typically dry months of summer and autumn."

NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens and Lauren Dauphin, using data courtesy of Leanne Lestak/University of Colorado-INSTAAR, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, and MODIS data from NASA EOSDIS LANCE and GIBS/Worldview. Story by Michael Carlowicz.

Rocky Mountain Snowpack In Satellite View
NASA Earth Observatory

Rocky Mountain Area snowpack on April 7, 2022. (The detailed description for Sierra Nevada Snowpack also applies to Rocky Mountain Snowpack.) A natural-color image acquired by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NOAA-NASA Suomi NPP satellite. NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens and Lauren Dauphin, Story by Sara Pratt.

The Salton Sea Could Produce the World's Greenest Lithium, If New Extraction Methods Work
U.S. Ammonia Prices Rise in Response to Higher International Natural Gas Prices
Energy Information Administration

Image by the Energy Information Administration.

A Nickel Mine in Minnesota that Might Power Tesla
Facts About Nickel
Nickel ore
Nickel Ore: A sample of nickel ore from the Sudbury Igneous Complex. This is a specimen of pentlandite in pyrrhotite approximately four inches across. USGS image.

Gemological Characterization of Peridot from Pyaung-Gaung in Mogok, Myanmar
Gemological Institute of America
Peridot, the Gemstone Variety of the Mineral Olivine

Many people are familiar with olivine because it is the mineral of a very popular green gemstone known as peridot.

Ten Pioneering Women of Antarctica and the Places Named for Them
Map of Antarctica

Map of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean by the LIMA Project (Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica).

Libya's Crude Oil Production Has Been Volatile
Energy Information Administration

Civil war, labor protests, strikes, blockades, infrastructure damage and repair have all caused crude oil production in Libya to be volatile.

Nepali Sherpa Breaks His Own Record Again by Scaling Everest 26 Times
Highest Mountain in the World

Highest Altitude: An altitude of 8,848.86 meters (29,031.69 feet) above sea level makes Mount Everest the mountain on Earth with the highest altitude. "Highest altitude" means that it has the highest elevation above mean sea level... but, depending upon how you define "highest mountain," Mount Everest has some rivals!

How Scientists Resolved the Mystery of the Devil's Corkscrews

Public domain image by James St. John, displayed here under a Creative Commons License.

Losing a Long-Watched Glacier
NASA Earth Observatory

Scientists have been observing Peyto Glacier in Alberta, Canada since the 1960s. NASA Earth Observatory image by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Story by Adam Voiland.

Americans Are Missing a Key Stratum of Modern Knowledge
The Atlantic
Quote from the article: "To understand how climate change is altering our planet, it helps to know a little Earth science."
U.S. Takes Unprecedented Steps to Replenish Colorado River's Lake Powell
Yahoo! Finance
1958: a US Submarine Is the First Vessel to Reach the North Pole - by Travelling Under Ice
The World's Largest Hydrogen-Battery Hybrid Haul Truck Starts Work
Anglo American begins using the 320-ton capacity truck at the world's largest open-pit platinum group metals mine in South Africa.
Treasure Hunter Unearths 2.38-Carat 'Frankenstone' Diamond at Crater of Diamonds (Arkansas)
The Only Diamond Mine In the World Where You Can Be the Miner

Diamonds Found at the Mine: This small handful of diamonds was found at Crater of Diamonds State Park. Yellow, brown and "white" diamonds are all found regularly at the park. Many have a rounded octahedral or a rounded dodecahedral crystal habit. Image courtesy of Arkansas.com.

Arizona Water Shortages Tests the State's Desert Dweller Ethic
Western Megadrought Is Worst in 1,200 Years, Intensified by Climate Change
Los Angeles Times
In Sediments Below Antarctic Ice, Scientists Discover a Giant Groundwater System
State of the Planet
Diagnosing Neptune's Chilly Summer
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Quote from the article: "A pandemic project analyzing a trove of infrared images revealed an unexplained phenomenon taking place in Neptune's atmosphere."
Lab-Grown Diamonds Are Not Just Here to Stay, They've Re-Energized the Jewelry Industry
Zulu Ghevriya, CEO and creative director of Smiling Rocks says: "Lab-grown diamonds represent an $80 billion industry that will run parallel to the mined diamond industry.
What Are Lab-Grown Diamonds?

Names Used for Lab-Grown Diamonds: These are some of the names that people use to refer to lab-grown diamonds: Cultured, CVD/HPHT (Chemical Vapor Deposition / High-Pressure High-Temperature), Synthetic, Man-Made, LGD (Lab-Grown Diamond), and Lab-Created, among others.

De Beers Plans To Make All Its Diamonds Trackable
JCK Online
Currently, all De Beers diamonds weighting 1 carat or more are trackable. The goal is to make all of their diamonds trackable.
USGS and Apple Work to Better Understand Global Mining Impacts of Key Minerals and Their Future Supply
United States Geological Survey

A visual representation of the rock-to-metal ratio and shows the cycle from mined rock and ore, to a refined mineral commodity. Image is public domain through Creative Commons, courtesy of Environmental Science & Technology.

Pluto's Surface Was Recently Sculpted by Icy Volcanism
EOS Earth & Space Science News

New Horizons images of Pluto. This image zooms in on Wright Mons, a possible ice volcano on Pluto.

Journal Publication: Large-Scale Cryovolcanic Resurfacing on Pluto

Active Volcanoes of Our Solar System

Io, a moon of Jupiter, is the most volcanically active body in our solar system. It has over 100 active volcanic centers, many of which have multiple active vents. Eruptions recurrently resurface large parts of the moon. NASA image.

Value of Energy Trade Between the United States and Mexico Reaches a Nine-Year High
Energy Information Administration

Graph by the Energy Information Administration.

Officials Will Release Less Water Into Lake Mead Because of Drought
Should the Skeleton of a Dinosaur That Inspired "Jurassic Park" Be Sold to the Highest Bidder?
Chachani Volcano, Andes Mountains
NASA Earth Observatory

Located north of Arequipa, Peru, Chachani's past volcanic activity has produced a volcanic landscape marked by lava flows, lava domes, stratovolcanoes, and a shield volcano. Photo by astronauts on the International Space Station.

Igneous Rocks and Volcanic Landforms

Although all igneous rocks form from the solidification of molten material, they can have very different appearances and characteristics depending upon the composition of the original material and where exactly it cooled. Image and article by Terri Cook.

Early Season Heat Waves Strike India
NASA Earth Observatory

In India, the hottest March on record was followed by more waves of oppressive heat in April, leaving more than a billion people sweltering and the monsoon season still weeks away. NASA Earth Observatory image by Joshua Stevens, using GEOS-5 data from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA GSFC. Story by Sara E. Pratt.

Get Ready for Another Energy Price Spike: High Electric Bills
Gift Article from The New York Times
Hunt For Gems - Keep What You Find!

You're the Miner: There are over 100 mines in the United States where anyone can visit, pay a small fee, look for gems and minerals, and keep what they find. Visit our Fee Mining Page for a list of these mines.

Gold Tiger's Eye

Tiger's-Eye receives its name from the way that light interacts with the stone. When moved under a bright light such as direct sunlight or a bright lamp in the room, the fibers in the stone reflect a line of light that moves across the surface of the stone when it is moved. The phenomenon, known as chatoyance, reminds people of the line-shaped pupil in the eye of a tiger - thus the name. Image is by RockTumbler.com, a retail site owned by GeoShops.com, LLC, the parent company of Geology.com.

Lightning Had Difficulty Forming in Early Earth's Atmosphere
EOS Earth & Space Science News
World Lightning Hot Spots

Lake Maracaibo: The world's top lightning hotspot is over Lake Maracaibo in northwestern Venezuela. Here, nocturnal thunderstorms occur on average about 297 days per year and produce an average of about 232 lightning flashes / square kilometer / year.

See also: World Lightning Strikes Map

Scientists in Parks: Apply Now for Winter Season Projects
The Geological Society of America

Application period: 1 May to 12 June, 2022 for winter season projects with start dates between October and April.

Why Can't Mined And Lab-Grown Diamond Supporters Get Along?
JCK Online
Lab-Grown Diamonds

Names Used for Lab-Grown Diamonds: These are some of the names that people use to refer to lab-grown diamonds: Cultured, CVD/HPHT (Chemical Vapor Deposition / High-Pressure High-Temperature), Synthetic, Man-Made, LGD (Lab-Grown Diamond), and Lab-Created, among others.

Are The Russian Diamond Sanctions Working?
JCK Online
ALROSA, the largest diamond producing company in the world, which is 1/3 owned by the government of Russia, has probably seen a revenue drop, but sanctions imposed by the United States (and other countries) might allow diamonds mined in Russia but polished in India (or another country) to not be subject to government sanctions.
About 20% of U.S. Electric Power Generating Capacity Can Operate on Multiple Fuels
Energy Information Administration

Graphs by the Energy Information Administration.

Fireball 10 Times Brighter than the Moon Streaks Over Mississippi, Triggering a Massive Boom
Live Science
Loud Fireball Spotted Over Southern Mississippi Mostly Heard, Hardly Seen
China Imports More LNG than Any Other Country
Energy Information Administration

Graph by the Energy Information Adminitration.

China is a country that imports much of their minerals and fuels rather than mining or drilling their own. They also purchased lots of "minerals in the ground" in other countries (including the United States). China will probably start mining/drilling their own after they have depleted the resource base of the rest of the world. If you are the manufacturing capital of the world you are going to go through a lot of resources. One day they might be the primary source of most minerals and will dictate price.

NASA Sees 'Otherworldly' Wreckage on Mars With Ingenuity Helicopter
Gift Article from the New York Times

Image by NASA.

See what NASA has to say about this in their article: "Debris Field From Perseverance Landing Gear Seen by Mars Helicopter."

Rapid Growth of New Mexico Wildfire Prompts New Evacuation Orders
ABC News

Map by Southwest Area Incident Management Team.

Hidden Upwelling Systems May Be Overlooked Branches of Ocean Circulation
EOS Earth & Space Science News

Image of Gulf Stream sea surface currents and temperatures. Reddish orange is the warmest water and gradients to bluish green as cold water. Image by NASA Scientific Visualization Studio.

Where and How to Make the Most of the Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower, Peaking May 4-5
The Seattle Times
Long-Awaited Accelerator Ready to Explore Origins of Elements
"The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams will be the first to produce and analyse hundreds of isotopes crucial to physics."
'Deep-Sea Gold Rush' for Rare Metals Could Cause Irreversible Harm
The Guardian
The Hiawatha Impact Structure: Hidden Under Arctic Ice Dates to the Paleocene
EOS Science News
In Greenland, Hiawatha impact structure, more than 30 kilometers in diameter, is much older than previously thought.
Calcasieu Pass, the Seventh U.S. LNG Export Terminal, Begins Production
Energy Information Administration

Graphic by the Energy Information Administration.

Jewelers Vigilance Committee says Current Russian Diamond Sanction Rules Are "Murky"
JCK Online
U.S. sanctions against Russia, the world's largest producer of natural diamonds (on the basis of carat weight), might clearly limit U.S. businesses from buying diamonds directly from ALROSA or other Russian sellers. However, they are unclear about U.S. companies purchasing jewelry-ready gems that were made from rough that was mined in Russia, but, was cut and polished in India. Enough people in the gem and jewelery business are concerned about the source of "any diamond" that GIA is expediting their diamond origin reports.
Energy Flow Diagrams for Natural Gas and Other Commodities
Energy Information Administration

Energy flow diagrams are graphical representations of sources of energy into the market and business sectors where the energy is consumed. For natural gas, important inputs include: gas from shale wells, gas from natural gas wells, gas from oil wells, gas from coal bed wells, imports, withdrawals from storage, and others. Consumption sectors include electric power generation, industrial use, residential use, exports, additions to storage and more. Click to enlarge.

How Glaciers Record the Winds of Change
Blogs of the European Geosciences Union
Ocean Animals Face a Mass Extinction from Climate Change
Gift Article from The Washington Post
Avoiding Ocean Mass Extinction from Climate Warming
Giant Planet's Formation Caught in Action
EOS Earth & Space Science News
"Astronomers took a direct image of a massive protoplanet embedded in a protoplanetary disk. The system provides strong evidence for an as-yet-unconfirmed theory of planet formation."
The De Beers Blue Sells for $57.5 Million at Sotheby's
JCK Online

The "De Beers Blue" is a 15.1 carat step-cut internally flawless fancy vivid blue diamond. It was cut from a 39.34 carat rough blue diamond found at the Cullinan Mine in South Africa. Some of the world's largest diamonds have been found at Cullinan. Photo by Sotheby's.

Parts of California Don't Have Enough Water to Meet Demand, Sparking Sweeping Cuts
Los Angeles Times
Impacts of Falling Great Lakes Water Levels
Weather and seasonal drought influence water levels in the Great Lakes. The lakes were at record high water levels in 2020 and are much lower thus far in 2022.
Map of the Great Lakes

Political Map of the Great Lakes Region showing the U.S. states and Canadian provinces that border the lakes. The international boundary between the United States and Canada is also shown on the map - note how it crosses the lakes.

Watch the Venus Jupiter Conjunction at the End of April
Three Producing Regions Drove Natural Gas Production in the United States in 2021
Energy Information Administration

About 59% of the natural gas produced in the United States during 2021 came from three producing regions: the Haynesville, Permian and Appalachia.

Enigmatic Rocks on Mars Show Evidence of a Violent Origin
Olivine-rich bedrock in the Gusev Crater and Jezero Crater areas may be ignimbrites that were produced by caldera-forming eruptions.
What Is a Caldera? How Do They Form?

The progression of events in the formation of the caldera at Crater Lake.

Seven of of Scotland's Most Enchanting Standing Stone Sites
Atlas Obscura

The Callanish Stones, located near the village of Callanish, Isle of Lewis, Outer Herbrides, Scotland. Photograph by Petr Broz, displayed here under a GNU Free Documentation License.

Where Is the Isle of Lewis?

The "Isle of Lewis" refers to the northern two-thirds of Lewis with Harris Island. The southern one-third is refered to as the Isle of Harris. Lewis with Harris is the largest island of Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles, after Great Britain and the island of Ireland.

United Kingdom, Great Britain, British Isles What's the Difference?
A Fast-Moving Fire on the Grassland of Eastern Mongolia
NASA Earth Observatory

When spring warmth melts snow off the steppe of eastern Mongolia, the remains of last year's plant growth are exposed. In dry and windy conditions, these brown, withered grasslands can become tinder for wildfires. The blackened area in the image above was burned by the fire. The flames are currently hidden by smoke which is being carried to the east by the wind. Image by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Story by Adam Voiland.