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Visit to the Largest Rare Earth Mine in the Western Hemisphere
8 News NOW Las Vegas on YouTube

REE - Rare Earth Elements and their Uses

REE Periodic Table: The Rare Earth Elements are the 15 lanthanide series elements, plus yttrium. Scandium is found in most rare earth element deposits and is sometimes classified as a rare earth element. Image by Geology.com.

Tree Rings Reveal a 700-Year Record of Flooding in Bangladesh
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Stratospheric Balloons Listen In on Ground Activity
EOS Earth & Space Science News
NASA Balloon Detects California Earthquake - Next Stop, Venus?

Four "heliotrope" baloons were flown near Ridgecrest, California, after a series of earthquakes rattled the region in 2019. By attaching barometers to the balloons, researchers from JPL and Caltech hoped to detect the sound of one of the aftershocks. Image by NASA/JPL/Caltech.

M 7.5 Earthquake Near Barranca, Peru
United States Geological Survey

USGS: Magnitude 7.5 Earthquake Strikes Northern Peru
7 News Miami
The Top 10 Misconceptions about Yellowstone Volcanism
United States Geological Survey

Why Have There Been So Many Earthquakes in Central Idaho?
United States Geological Survey
The Land of Turquoise

Cover page of Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2021.

Recent Legislation Would Reduce the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve
Energy Information Administration

The United States used about 18.19 million barrels of crude oil per day in 2020. So, 50 million barrels would be about 2.75 days of consumption at the 2020 rate. Pre-pandemic the crude oil consumption was about 13% higher.

A Chip Off the Moon May Be Tailing Earth on Its Orbit Around the Sun

At Kilauea, Hawaii: The Refilling of Halema'uma'u Crater
United States Geological Survey

The ongoing eruption at Kilauea summit continues to fill Halema'uma'u crater with lava. A gas plume rises from the active vent on the west (left) side of the crater as lava flows from the vent into the rising lava lake (black surface). An overflow onto the lowest visible down-dropped block on the east (right) of the lava lake occurred on November 15. Above the block with the overflow, the edge of the largest down-dropped block stretches from bottom- to center-right. USGS photo taken by N. Deligne on November 16.

Mammoths Lost Their Steppe Habitat to Climate Change
EOS Science News
The Cascade Range Has Nearly 3000 Once-Active Volcanoes
The Use of Diamonds in High Technologies is the Main and Key Target of the Diamond Synthesis
Rough Polished
From the article (with minor edits): "The commercial applications of synthetic diamond in high technologies... are... much more promising than just cutting and polishing a crystal and using it as a substitute for a natural diamond in jewelry pieces."
Afghan Gems Have a Future, a Longtime Dealer Says
The New York Times
Lapis Lazuli, Afghanistan's Historic Gem and Pigment

High-quality lapis lazuli from Afghanistan has been used as a mineral pigment for over 1,000 years. Bright blue pieces of lapis are trimmed of impurities and ground to a fine powder; the powder can then be mixed with oil or another vehicle for use as a paint.

Higher-grade pigments can be produced by washing the powder with mild acid to remove calcite and dolomite that dilute the blue color. What remains can be washed to remove pyrite and other impurities. When dried and ground to a fine powder the resulting pigment is known as "ultramarine".

Kaleidoscope of Deep-Sea Life Found Near Hydrothermal Vents Off Mexican Coast
Man Keeps a Rock For Years, Hoping It's Gold. It Turned Out to Be Far More Valuable
Iron Meteorites: The Hearts of Long-Vanished Asteroids

A spectacular example of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite, which fell in eastern Russia in 1947. This large specimen weighs 11.1 kg / 24 1/2 lbs and is described as a complete individual, as opposed to shrapnel specimens which are angular as a result of explosive fragmentation in the atmosphere. The scale cube pictured is 1 cm in size. Note the sculptural shape and abundant regmaglypts (thumbprint-like indentations), caused when the surface melted during flight. Photograph by Leigh Anne DelRay, copyright Aerolite Meteorites.

How to Spot Treated Opal
Black Opal Direct

This video applies mainly to the treatment of Ethiopian opal to serve as a "look-alike" of Australian black opal.

Most Planned U.S. Natural Gas-Fired Plants Are Near Appalachia and in Florida or Texas
Energy Information Administration

Map by the Energy Information Administration using data from the Monthly Electric Generator Inventory.

Could Microscopic Organisms in Polar Snow Contribute to Global Sea Level Rise?
The Washington Post
The Isles of Scilly: Remnants of the Underlying Cornubian Batholith
NASA Earth Observatory

An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of the Isles of Scilly. The archipelago located just southwest of Cornwall, England represents the remnants of the Cornubian Batholith. The archipelago includes nearly 150 islands in the Celtic Sea, of which five are inhabited.

Redistribution of Ash from the 1912 Eruption of Novarupta
Alaska Volcano Observatory
Strong northwesterly winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes have picked up loose volcanic ash erupted during the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai eruption and carried it to the southeast toward Kodiak Island this morning starting about 9:15 AKST (1815 UTC). The National Weather Service has issued a SIGMET for this low-level event and suggests that the maximum cloud height is 7,000 ft above sea level.
Novarupta: The Most Powerful Volcanic Eruption of the 20th Century

Novarupta Pyroclastic Flow and Ashfall: Satellite image of the Novarupta / Katmai area showing the geographic extent of the pyroclastic flow (yellow) and ash deposit contours (red) from the 1912 eruption. Enlarge image.

Study Traces Ammonia Pollution in Africa
NASA Earth Observatory

Ammonia is naturally emitted by soils and vegetation fires, but most of it is added to the atmosphere by humans through agricultural activities such as fertilizer use and livestock ranching. When present in excess amounts in an ecosystem, ammonia can make soils more acidic and hinder plant growth. As an air pollutant, it can provoke heart- and lung-related illness.

One of the Few Glaciers on Earth that Is Not Retreating
NASA Earth Observatory

Quote from the article: "Where the glacier meets the lake, ice separates in a sonorous event called calving that happens almost daily. This spectacle has made Los Glaciares National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a popular tourist destination."

Bill Gates Venture Picks Wyoming City for Sodium Nuke Plant
Associated Press
One Time Zone for the World?
Subtitle: "An astrophysicist and an economist want to fix our clocks and our calendars"
NASA's DART Planetary Defense Mission: (Double Asteroid Redirection Test)

Quote from the article: "DART is a planetary defense-driven test of technologies for preventing an impact of Earth by a hazardous asteroid. DART will be the first demonstration of the kinetic impactor technique to change the motion of an asteroid in space."

Diamond Mines in Canada

Canada's Diamond Mines: A map of Canadian diamond mines showing the approximate location of eight mines.

Rio Tinto Now Sole Owner Of Diavik Diamond Mine
JCK Online

552-Carat Yellow Diamond: Dominion Diamond Mines announced on December 14, 2018, that a 552-carat yellow diamond was found at the Diavik Mine, located in Northwest Territories, Canada. They believe that this is the largest diamond ever found in North America. It surpasses the Foxfire, a 187.7-carat diamond, also found at Diavik in 2015, which is believed to be the previous largest diamond found in North America. (As of November, 2021, Rio Tinto PLC became 100% owner of Diavik). Image by Dominion Diamond Mines.

Cyanobacteria Blooms Exceed WHO Thresholds in Midwest Lakes
EOS Earth & Space Science News

An algal bloom in Lake Erie. Satellite image by NASA.

Launching Soon: NASA's First Asteroid Deflection Test
NASA on YouTube

Hubble's Grand Tour of the Outer Solar System

Image by NASA.

Not Geology But Interesting: The Quest to Shoot an Arrow Farther Than Anyone Has Before
If you have any interest in archaeology and archery, watch the video at the bottom of the page.
The Weight of Cities: Urbanization Effects on Earth's Subsurface
AGU Advances
Busting Myths About One of the Largest Volcanic Systems in the World
Yellowstone Volcano Observatory
Contrary to popular belief, Yellowstone is not "overdue" for eruption. Yellowstone experiences thousands of earthquakes every year, but these are not a sign of the volcano getting ready to erupt. Despite its reputation, most eruptions from Yellowstone are lava flows, not massive explosions.
British Columbia Sees Death Toll Rising from Massive Flood
GeoFlight Takes to the Air to Help Identify Geothermal and Mineral Resources at the Salton Sea
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy
Adapting to Receding Glaciers in the Tropical Andes
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Quote from the article: "Tropical glaciers" may sound to some like a contradiction in terms. Yet these glaciers are very real, existing in mountainous tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Indonesia, and South America and providing much-needed water to more than one sixth of the world's population.
Uranium in Grand Canyon Region Groundwater
United States Geological Survey
Nearly 95% of samples collected from 206 locations over 40 years show uranium concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey report.
The Search for Life on Mars Could be Misled by False Fossils
Cautions in Viewing Objects
Henry Baker, The Microscope Made Easy, Chapter 15, Page 62 (1743)
Henry Baker's 1743 warning about using a microscope applies even to the examination of suspected fossils from Mars.

Beware of determining and declaring your opinion suddenly on any object; for imagination often gets the start of judgment, and makes people believe they see things, which better observations will convince them could not possibly be seen; therefore assert nothing till after repeated experiments and examinations in all lights and in all positions.

When you employ the microscope, shake off all prejudice, nor harbor any favorite opinions; for, if you do, 'tis not unlikely fancy will betray you into error, and make you see what you wish to see.

Remember that truth alone is the matter that you are in search after; and if you have been mistaken, let not vanity seduce you to persist in your mistake.

Rocks on Mars: Images of Rocks on Mars that Look Just Like Rocks on Earth

Mudstone: This photograph, taken by NASA's Mars Rover Curiosity in 2015, shows sedimentary rocks of the Kimberley Formation in Gale Crater. The crater contains thick deposits of finely laminated mudstone that represent fine-grained sediments deposited in a standing body of water that persisted for a long period of time - long enough to allow sediments to accumulate to significant thickness.

Why the Biden Administration is Reopening Oil and Gas Leasing in the Gulf of Mexico
New Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity Expands Access to Export and Northeast Markets
Energy Information Administration

Davemaoite: A Newly Discovered Mantle Mineral - Found as an Inclusion in Diamond
NBC News
From Deep Within Earth's Mantle, This Never-Before-Seen Mineral Hitched a Ride to the Surface in a Diamond
Seismology: A Promising Tool for Monitoring Permafrost
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Citizen Scientists' Contributions a Boon to Snowpack Modeling
Oregon State University
Near-Total Lunar Eclipse to Occur This Week, Longest of the Century
Climate Change Will Destroy Familiar Environments, Create New Ones and Undermine Efforts to Protect Sea Life
Oregon State University
How to Better Identify Dangerous Volcanoes
Science Daily
Tree Rings from Old Growth Douglas Firs on the Oregon Coast Show Evidence of a Tsunami in 1700
Oregon State University
Green River Formation Fossils

Green River Fossil Insect: The Green River Formation is one of the world's fossil treasure chests. Many species of insects, plants, fish, and animals are found in the Green River Formation. View more photos of Green River fossils from the National Park Service - Fossil Butte National Monument photographs.

The Changing Moods of Colloidal Pool in Norris Geyser Basin (Yellowstone)
United States Geological Survey

Comparison of (a) 1904 Historical map with (b) 1988 USGS map. Colloidal Pool is a large, labeled pool roughly located on a straight line between Hurricane vent and Whirligig Geyser on the 1988 map (b); this same transect on the 1904 map (a) shows no feature at that location (white circle). Note: maps are not at the same scale or orientation. Panels c and d show photos of Colloidal Pool's variations in water appearance from the Yellowstone Flickr page. (c) Teal-blue water without foam (photo taken August 27, 2009, by Greg L. Jones). (d) Foamy conditions with opaque blue-brown water (photo taken August 4, 2019 by Joe Shlabotnik).

M 6.3 and M 6.0 Earthquakes in Iran Near Strait of Hormuz
United States Geological Survey

The Strait of Hormuz is a chokepoint between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf (between Iran and Oman). Much of the world's crude oil exports move on tankers through the strait.

A 300-Million-Year-Old Fossil Discovered in Utah Could Be a New Species
La Palma Volcano: Strong Earthquake and New Lava Delta, 56th Day.
GeologyHub on YouTube

Animated Map: Progression of Lava Flows During the Eruption of La Palma, Canary Islands
x_y_es on YouTube

The video shows the progression of lava flows during the eruption of Cumbre Vieja volcano on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands.

Russia Launches a Climate Plan, Relying on Their Trees to Remove CO2 Emissions
Associated Press
USGS Patents: A Novel Approach to Science
United States Geological Survey

Casing and collector being lowered into well excavation. Photo by Joe Ayotte, USGS.

A Simple Recipe for Making the First Continental Crust
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Could You Be a Mendenhall Research Fellow?
United States Geological Survey

Dr. Brett Carr, USGS Mendenhall Postdoctoral Scientist, records measurements from a laser rangefinder of the surface of the lava lake in Halema'uma'u crater at Kilauea Volcano. Photo by Matthew Patrick, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

NOAA Announces Process to Designate a National Marine Sanctuary Off Central California

Deepwater bubblegum coral, a host for California king crab, observed during 2020 E/V Nautilus exploration of the Santa Lucia Bank. Corals and sponges that make up the area's seafloor habitats provide food and shelter for recreationally and commercially important fish species. Photo by NOAA.

Calling All Geoscience Faculty Conducting Research or Teaching Geologic Mapping.
United States Geological Survey

The USGS EDMAP Program is accepting funding proposals focusing on geologic mapping to support upper-level undergraduate and graduate students at their colleges or universities. Photo: Students from William & Mary University, supported by the EDMAP Program, prepare to conduct field research. Proposals are due on January 3, 2022. USGS public domain image.

When Kilauea Erupted, a New Volcanic Playbook Was Written
The New York Times
From the article: "Scientists learned lessons from the 2018 outburst on the island of Hawaii that are changing how responders prepare for eruptions in other places."
Loss of Glaciers Will Hurt Tourism, Power Supplies and More
Associated Press
Wildfires in the Campanian of James Ross Island: A New Macro-Charcoal Record for the Antarctic Peninsula
Polar Research

Image showing the location of James Ross Island, Antarctica. Displayed here under a Creative Commons License. Lima, F. J. de, Sayao, J. M., Ponciano, L. C. M. de O., Weinschutz, L. C., Figueiredo, R. G., Rodrigues, T. M., Bantim, R. A. M., Saraiva, A. Alamo F., Jasper, A., Uhl, D., & Kellner, A. W. (2021). Wildfires in the Campanian of James Ross Island: a new macro-charcoal record for the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Research, 40. https://doi.org/10.33265/polar.v40.5487

A Large Rock Slope Collapse from Punta dei Ross, Croda Marcora in the Italian Dolomites
The Landslide Blog

EIA Expects Volatile Natural Gas Prices this Winter Because of Uncertainty About Weather
Energy Information Administration

Crude Oil Demand Returns Faster than Supply, Increasing Prices and Reducing Inventories
Energy Information Administration

The Deepest Earthquake Ever Recorded Happened 467 Miles Underground, Surprising Scientists
Jag Hill Nobby Opal
Black Opal Direct

Newly Revised "Geologic map of the State of Hawaii"
United States Geological Survey

This map - originally published in 2007 - has been updated to include more recent geologic deposits, including lava flows from Kilauea's Pu'u'o'o vent on the middle East Rift Zone from 2007 - 2018 and lava flows erupted during Kilauea's 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption.

Exciting Insights into Yellowstone's Youngest Supereruption
United States Geological Survey

A hand-sample photo of what is known to be Lava Creek Tuff "unit 2." Small black scoria pieces within the tuff are distinctive of this unit compared to the previously recognized Member A and Member B of the Lava Creek Tuff. Photo by Ray Salazar (Montana State University) on August 16, 2021.

How Long Does a Big Yellowstone Explosive Eruption Last?
United States Geological Survey

Chart by USGS. See also The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, Yellowstone: Evacuation of Multiple Magmatic Systems in a Complex Episodic Eruption.

Maori Arrival in New Zealand Revealed in Antarctic Ice Cores
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Ice On the Edge of Survival: Warming Is Changing the Arctic
Associated Press
Star System With Right-Angled Planets Surprises Astronomers
The New York Times
Despite Sanctions, Iran's Dry Natural Gas Production Grew Steadily Over the Past 20 Years
Energy Information Administration

Image by the Energy Information Administration.

Powerful Landsat 9 Satellite Beams Home First Photos of Earth
How Did the Enslaved Workers of Pompeii Live? A New Discovery Provides a Rare Glimpse
National Public Radio
Mount Vesuvius: The Volcano that Destroyed Pompeii

A panorama of the Gulf of Naples, Italy, showing the high population density and commerce. Mt. Vesuvius rests quietly in the background. Image copyright iStockphoto / Danilo Ascione.

U.S. Consumption and Production of Natural Gas Decreased While Exports Grew in 2020
Energy Information Administration

Star System With Right-Angled Planets Surprises Astronomers
The New York Times
Drought Is Forcing Farmers in Colorado to Make Tough Choices
National Public Radio
6 Mysterious Structures Hidden Beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet
Live Science
Summer Could Be Earthquake Season on Mars
EOS Earth & Space Science News
Is It Green, or Forever Toxic? Nuclear Rift at Climate Talks
Associated Press

From the Nuclear Regulator Commission Library. Visit their library here.

Added Transnational Oil Pipeline Capacity Could Reduce Crude Oil Shipped by Rail
Energy Information Administration

Image caption by EIA: "The Enbridge Line 3 replacement pipeline, which delivers crude oil from Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada to Superior, Wisconsin, became fully operational on October 1, 2021, increasing the pipeline's capacity to 760,000 barrels per day. Before the replacement, Enbridge Line 3 had a capacity of about half that amount. Because the Line 3 replacement project increases the capacity to import crude oil by pipeline from Canada, this pipeline could reduce the need to ship crude oil from Canada by other modes, especially rail."

What's Happening in the Kilauea Summit Crater?
United States Geological Survey

A wide view of the lava lake in Halema'uma'u, at the summit of Kilauea, on October 29, 2021. This view shows a spatter cone on the left side of the lava lake that continues to supply lava to the active portion of the lava lake, while the right portion is crusted over. The active lake is primarily between the lava source and the island in the center of the lake. USGS photo by N. Deligne. Click to the USGS article for a larger photo.

Spain's La Palma Volcano Continues to Erupt and Spew Ash
The Ash and Dust from Cumbre Vieja Volcano Lowers Air Quality Across La Palma
Associated Press
Prairies of the Sea
Subtitle: "A vast, mostly invisible ecosystem crucial to our life on Earth is in trouble, but efforts to save the 'prairies of the sea' are finally coming into focus."
Should I Stay or Should I Go? Insights from an Expert on a Career Outside Academia
European Geosciences Union Blog
Asian Mountain Nations to Present Unified Voice at Global Climate Conference
Columbia Climate School