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Video: Sinking Bangkok
January 27 | DW.com
Shocked Meteorites Provide Clues to Earth*s Lower Mantle
January 27 | Arizona State University

Artist*s rendition of Earth, cut away to reveal individual layers, including the deep mantle. Image by Mingming Li, Arizona State University.

All About Meteorites
January 27 | Geology.com

Sikhote-Alin Iron Meteorite: A fine example of a Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite, weighing 409.9 grams, which was seen to fall in eastern Russia in February of 1947. Photo copyright Aerolite Meteorites / Geoffrey Notkin.

The Rare Sun Diamond
January 27 | Gemological Institute of America
A modified octahedron with a centrally-located, eye-visible, cloud inclusion that presents as a six-ray star.
Expect the Unexpected: Geology and Maya Warfare
January 27 | United States Geological Survey
Urban Growth in the Southeast Potentially Threatens the Health of Small Streams
January 27 | United States Geological Survey

Streams in the Piedmont region of the Southeast, like the Little Sugar Creek in North Carolina shown here, have been greatly impacted by urbanization. Photo by Celeste Journey, USGS.

USGS Estimates 3.6 Billion Barrels of Oil in Central Alaska*s North Slope
January 27 | United States Geological Survey

Aerial photo of the Badami pipeline crossing polygonal permafrost terrain, somewhere between Deadhorse and Badami, Alaska. USGS photo by David Houseknecht.

Brazil Floods and Landslides Kill Dozens
January 27 | BBC
The Andes Dividing the Atacama Desert from the Yungas and Chaco Forests
January 26 | NASA Earth Observatory

The divide between lush Yungas and Chaco Forests of Argentina and the Atacama desert of Bolivia is striking in this photograph taken by an astronaut onboard the International Space Station. Astronaut photograph by NASA.

Renewable Natural Gas Facilities by Feedstock and End-use
January 26 | Energy Information Administration

Over 1,200 Injured, 29 Dead After Turkey Earthquake
January 26 | The Hill
M 4.8 Earthquake Off the Coast of Vancouver Island
January 25 | Geology.com
Where Is Vancouver Island?
January 25 | Geology.com

Podcast: Mighty Mice Return From the International Space Station
January 25 | National Public Radio
US Shale Suffering From Sustained Contraction
January 25 | RigZone.com
EIA Expects U.S. Net Natural Gas Exports to Almost Double in 2021
January 25 | Energy Information Administration

US Oil Industry Made History in December
January 25 | RigZone.com
"U.S. crude oil production and exports reached historic highs in the final month of 2019."
Anaerobic Activity Is a Big Contributor in Marine *Dead Zones*
January 25 | EOS Earth & Space Science News

Hypoxic zones are areas in the ocean where the oxygen concentration is so low that animals can suffocate and die, and as a result are often called "dead zones." The largest hypoxic zone in the United States, and the second largest hypoxic zone worldwide, forms in the northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Image from NOAA's article titled: What Is A Dead Zone?

Roadside Geology of Oklahoma
January 25 | Geology.com Store

Congratulations to Neil H. Suneson for authoring the Roadside Geology of Oklahoma with maps, photos and expert descriptions! This 6"x9" paperback has 385 pages that are packed with detailed information about Oklahoma Geology. See a table of contents here.

M 6.7 Earthquake, Eastern Turkey, Only 10.0 km Deep
January 24 | United States Geological Survey
New Research Unlocks Clues about Earth*s Early Magnetic Field
January 24 | National Science Foundation

Researchers dated and analyzed zircon crystals. A crystal is seen here within the 'O' on the dime. Photo by John Tarduno, University of Rochester.

NASA Determines Australian Meteor Crater is the Oldest Known
January 24 | NASA

Erickson did it by searching for rocks that showed signs of being subjected to the shock and heat of a meteor strike. In particular, he gathered rock samples that contain two minerals: zircon and monazite. The minerals are crystals that contain uranium and lead, the ratio of which can be measured to determine the age of rock.

Rare Earth Elements and their Uses
January 24 | Geology.com

Click Image to enlarge.

Diabase: The Rock Selected and Transported Over 200 Miles to Build Stonehenge
January 24 | Geology.com

Stonehenge is one of the most famous stone structures ever made by humans. Stones of the monument's inner circle are made of diabase. They were transported about 240 miles from Wales to the monument site in England in about 2100 BC. Photograph copyright iStockphoto / Stephen Barnes.

Betelgeuse is Continuing to Dim! It*s Down to 1.506 Magnitude
January 24 | Universe Today
(Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star in the constellation Orion.)
Smallest Gold Coin in the World
January 24 | SwissMint

At less than 3 millimeters across and weighing 0.63 grams, these gold coins are so small, they could be lost in your pocket lint. Image by the Swiss Mint.

U.S. and Canadian Oil Bankruptcies Surge 50% in 2019
January 24 | Reuters
EIA Expects U.S. Net Natural Gas Exports to Almost Double in 2021
January 23 | Energy Information Administration

Deception Island: One of the Only Places in the World Where Ships Can Sail into an Active Volcano
January 23 | NASA Earth Observatory

NASA Earth Observatory image by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey.

Understanding the High-Energy Physics of Earth*s Atmosphere
January 23 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
Florida*s Weather Forecast? Cold, With a Chance of Iguanas
January 23 | Smithsonian.com
Quote from the article: Stunned by chilly weather, the invasive lizards were dropping out of trees in the Sunshine State.
A Shipwreck Off Florida*s Coast Pits Archaeologists Against Treasure Hunters
January 23 | Smithsonian.com
Governor Sends Ohio National Guard to Help Puerto Rico*s Earthquake Recovery
January 23 | The Daily Advocate
Where Is Puerto Rico?
January 23 | Geology.com

Puerto Rico is located between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. It is one of 16 territories claimed by the United States.

EIA Projects Less than a Quarter of the World*s Electricity will be Generated from Coal by 2050
January 22 | Energy Information Administration

If you study the graph above you can see that the number of kilowatthours of electricity generated from coal remains about the same from present to 2050. However, the percentage of total global kilowatthours generated by coal drops because the number of kilowatthours generated by natural gas and renewables increases significantly. The world will still be burning a lot of coal for electricity generation in 2050.

Etosha Pan Refills
January 22 | NASA Earth Observatory

The Etosha Pan in northern Namibia is an ephemeral wonder. For much of the year, the salt pan is bone dry, and winds pick up its dust and salt and spread it across the dry landscape. But in years when the wet season brings abundant rains, the large, shallow basin stands out as a temporary oasis.

After Volcano Quiets, Philippine Officials At Odds Over Residents* Return
January 22 | National Public Radio
Winter Driving Hazards to Watch Out For
January 22 | NOAA

U.S. Oil and Gas Boom Is Throttled by Sharply Lower Prices
January 22 | Reuters
Success Rates of Proposals Submitted to NSF*s Geosciences Directorate
January 22 | American Geosciences Institute

Glacial Lake Outburst Floods: A New Climate-Related Threat from Above
January 22 | Scientific American
GIA Researchers Reveal the Secrets to Diamond-in-a-Diamond Mystery
January 22 | Gemological Institute of America
Destructive Hail And A Massive Dust Storm Descend On Fire-Ravaged Australia
January 21 | National Public Radio
Dust From Africa Crossing the Atlantic
January 21 | NASA Earth Observatory

Satellite observations show how far winds normally spread North African dust particles before rain and gravity pull them down to the ocean.

Earth*s Moon - In Depth
January 21 | NASA

Image by NASA Visualization Technology Applications and Development.

Megadrought Helped Topple the Assyrian Empire
January 21 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
Florida Agrees to Buy Broward Wetlands To End Everglades Oil Drilling Efforts
January 21 | WLRN.org
Colorado Oil Well Permitting Plummeted in 2019
January 21 | Denver BizJournals
2019 Was The 2nd-Hottest Year On Record, According To NASA And NOAA
January 20 | National Public Radio
EIA Forecasts Slower Growth in Natural Gas-Fired Generation While Renewable Energy Rises
January 20 | EOS Earth & Space Science News

U.S. Federal Agency Science Funding
January 20 | American Geosciences Institute

First U.S. Airline Goes *Carbon Neutral*
January 20 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
They are getting there by buying *carbon offsets*.
Binocular Astronomy
January 20 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
From the article: "The very best telescope is the one you find yourself using the most."
Amazing Photo of the Quadrantid Meteor Shower and Aurora Borealis from Space
January 20 | syfy.com

Composite photograph taken from the International Space Station by Christina H Koch, NASA.

The Eruption of Taal in the Philippines Is a Warning about Global Volcanic Hazards
January 20 | The Washington Post
Taal Volcano Poses a Deadly Dilema for People Living in Its Shadow
January 20 | CNN
More Precious than Gold: Why the Price of Palladium Is Soaring
January 20 | BBC
The Many Uses of Gold
January 20 | Geology.com

Jewelry is the leading use of gold in the United States, accounting for 38% of consumption. Other uses include: electronics (34%), minting of official coins (22%), and other uses (6%). Data from the USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries for 2017.

After Suspending Operations in 2017, ALROSA Starts Test Drilling at the Mir Kimberlite Pipe
January 19 | ALROSA
Peak Permian Oil Output Is Closer Than You Think
January 19 | Yahoo! Finance
U.S. Refiners Buy Russian and Baltic Fuel Oil to Replace Lost Purchases from Venezuela and Iran
January 19 | Reuters
U.S. LNG Exports to China Will Be Limited Until Tariffs Are Lifted
January 19 | Reuters
Earth Was Stressed Before the Dinosaur Extinction
January 18 | Northwestern University
Blue Pigment Discoverer Makes Key Design Advance for Future Durable, Vivid Pigments
January 18 | Oregon State University
By analyzing the crystal structure of pigments based on hibonite, a mineral found in meteorites, Mas Subramanian of the OSU College of Science has paved the way toward designing more pigments that are stable, durable and non-toxic with vivid hues.
Thawing Permafrost Affects Alaska*s Land-to-Ocean River Flows
January 18 | National Science Foundation
Toward a Smarter Way of Recharging the Aquifer
January 18 | Washington University in St. Louis

In this diagram, Young-Shin Jun, professor of energy, environmental and chemical engineering at the McKelvey School of Engineering, demonstrates how it is that the perfectly potable water used to recharge an aquifer can become contaminated with dangerous levels of arsenic. Image by Jun Lab.

Earthquake Forecast for Puerto Rico: Dozens More Large Aftershocks Are Likely
January 17 | The Conversation
Topography and bathymetry map of the Northeastern Caribbean
January 17 | United States Geological Survey

U.S. Net Natural Gas Exports Grow Through 2021
January 17 | Energy Information Administration

Iceland*s Volcanic Glacier
January 17 | NASA Earth Observatory

Vatnajokull National Park in Iceland is one of the rare places in the world where fire and ice lie adjacent to one another. The park is home to eight volcanoes located under glaciers. When one of these subglacial volcanoes erupts, sudden glacial outburst floods - called jokulhlaups in Icelandic - can occur with damaging consequences.

Rock Formations at Playa De Itzurun in Basque Country, Spain
January 17 | Smithsonian.com
Investigating: When Humans Made the First Bold Journey to the Americas
January 16 | Smithsonian.com
Taal Volcano Is a Test of Philippines* Disaster Plan
January 16 | Yahoo! News
Will Taal Volcano Explosively Erupt? Here*s What Scientists Are Watching
January 16 | Scientific American
Watch the Spectacular Eruption of One of Mexico*s Most Active Volcanoes
January 16 | Smithsonian.com
The Effect of Oil Price on Natural Gas Production
January 16 | Energy Information Administration
Occupations of Terminal Geoscience Degree Recipients (2010-2017)
January 16 | American Geosciences Institute

EIA Expects Lower Natural Gas Prices in 2020 As Production Outpaces Demand
January 16 | Energy Information Administration

Kawah Ijen: The Blue Flame Volcano
January 15 | Geology.com

Electric blue flames caused by burning volcanic gases and molten sulfur. A night scene at the solfatara in the caldera of Kawah Ijen Volcano. Image copyright iStockphoto / mazzzur.

Check Out Taal on Google Maps
January 15 | Google Maps
New Electric Generating Capacity in 2020 Will Come Primarily from Wind and Solar
January 15 | Energy Information Administration

Corpus Christi, Texas Port Sets a Weekly Shipping Record of 1.59 Million bpd
January 15 | Reuters
Wildfires Could Transform Amazon from Carbon Sink to Source
January 15 | Scientific American
Sulfur Spews from Taal
January 15 | NASA Earth Observatory

The image above shows the distribution of sulfur dioxide after the eruption of Taal Volcano in the Philippines.

Major Dust Storm Sweeps Across Australia
January 15 | NASA Earth Observatory

For months, wildfires raging in Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales have darkened skies in eastern Australia. In mid-January 2020, the skies turned a distinctive shade of orange for a different reason, as an enormous dust storm swept across the continent. NASA Earth Observatory image by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey and MODIS data from NASA EOSDIS/LANCE and GIBS/Worldview.

Taal: The Very Small, but Dangerous Volcano
January 15 | BBC
Volcanic Hazards
January 15 | Geology.com
As Philippine Volcano Belches Ash And Lava, Authorities Warn Of New Eruption
January 15 | National Public Radio
Magnitude 6.4 Earthquake in Puerto Rico (USGS Daily Observations)
January 14 | United States Geological Survey

Two portable sensors: a strong motion sensor (to record strong shaking that can be felt) and a broadband sensor (to record weak motion for detecting small earthquakes) buried into the ground to detect earthquakes. These stations can be quickly deployed and send real-time data back to the USGS via cellular telemetry immediately after they are installed. This photo, taken in Ridgecrest, CA, shows instruments similar to what have been deployed in Puerto Rico. Image by USGS.

How Conflict Influenced Land Use in Colombia
January 14 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
Inventories Accumulated by De Beers, ALROSA to Put Ceiling on Near-Term Prices
January 14 | Rough-Polished
Crater From Giant Meteorite Strike Might Be Hidden Under Volcanic Plateau
January 14 | Smithsonian.com
Gems from Space
January 14 | Geology.com

Tektite: An excellent example of an Indochinite tektite from Southeast Asia. Tektites are fragments of ejecta produced when a large extraterrestrial object strikes the Earth. The heat of the impact flash melts rock in the impact area and ejects it in the molten state. These molten masses solidify into a natural glass, a mineraloid, in flight and fall to Earth in the area around the impact. The impact that produced the tektites of the Indochina strewn field occurred about 800,000 years ago.

This 48.7-gram specimen is 48 mm x 35 mm x 21 mm in size. The shiny, glassy surface is natural, and similar in appearance to obsidian, which is a terrestrial igneous rock. Note the small crater-like features on the surface of this specimen, which are reminiscent of regmaglypts found on meteorites. Photograph by Leigh Anne DelRay, copyright Aerolite Meteorites.

U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves Set New Records in 2018
January 13 | Energy Information Administration

Image by the United States Energy Information Administration.

Stored Nutrients and Climate Warming Will Feed More Algal Blooms
January 13 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
The World*s Most Precious Metal Leaves Everything Else in the Dust
January 13 | Bloomberg
Philippines Warns of *Explosive Eruption* After Taal Volcano Spews Ash Near Manila
January 13 | CNN
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
January 13 | Geology.com

Some volcanic eruptions are thousands, or even a million times more explosive than others.

10 Most Hazardous Countries For Volcanoes
January 13 | LiveScience
Taal Volcano Spews Ash; Philippines Evacuating Residents, Watching for Tsunami
January 13 | The Washington Post
The Creation of a Giant Underwater Volcano off Mayotte in the Mozambique Channel
January 12 | Cosmos
Where Is Mayotte?
January 12 | Geology.com
Mayotte is an overseas department of France that consists of two tiny islands within the Comoros archipelago and located in the Mozambique Channel, a body of water that separates Mozambique and Madagascar, connecting to the Indian Ocean on both ends.
Rivers in Glint, Southern Brazil
January 12 | NASA Earth Observatory

An astronaut aboard the International Space Station focused a long camera lens on the Sun*s reflection point while orbiting over southern coastal Brazil. That reflection (known as sunglint) highlights three major rivers: Rio Parana, Rio Tiete, and Rio Paranapanema. Astronaut photograph provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center, NASA.

Divergent Paths: Oil and Natural Gas Prices are Going in Different Directions
January 12 | Reuters
Evidence of Recycling from 3000 Years Ago Found at an Archaeological Site in the Middle East
January 12 | Newsweek
NASA Maps Ground Changes From Puerto Rico 6.4 M Earthquake
January 12 | NASA

This map shows ground changes, or displacement, in Puerto Rico following a 6.4-magnitude earthquake. The ground shifted up to 5.5 inches (14 centimeters) in a downward and slightly west direction. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech, ESA, USGS

M 5.9 Earthquake, Southwestern Coast of Puerto Rico
January 11 | United States Geological Survey

Continuing earthquake activity, southwestern Puerto Rico. Shown on the map are all M 4.5+ earthquakes in the past 30 days as of January 11. Map by the United States Geological Survey.

Fault Dips Figured in Kilauea*s Caldera Collapse
January 11 | EOS Earth & Space Science News

A plume of volcanic ash rises from an explosion that accompanied Kilauea*s caldera collapse. Photo by K. Anderson, USGS.

What is a Caldera? How Do Calderas Form?
January 11 | Geology.com

Crater Lake Caldera: A satellite view of Crater Lake, one of the world*s most famous calderas. Crater Lake formed about 7700 years ago when a massive volcanic eruption of Mount Mazama emptied a large magma chamber below the mountain. The fractured rock above the magma chamber collapsed to produce a massive crater over six miles across.

Mystery of a Weird Seismic Hum Heard Around the World Solved
January 11 | Live Science
The Future of Natural Gas in North America
January 11 | McKinsey & Company

Steel pipe used in a well in the Marcellus Shale gas play of southwestern Pennsylvania. Photograph by Ken Skipper, USGS

Enormous *Megafire* In Australia Engulfs 1.5 Million Acres
January 11 | National Public Radio
Six Lab-Grown Diamond Companies Over Patents
January 11 | JCK Online
What Are Lab-Grown Diamonds?
January 11 | Geology.com

A *Ring of Fire* Eclipse Dazzled Viewers in Asia and the Middle East
January 10 | Smithsonian.com
Lanzarote*s Lunar-Like Landscape (Canary Islands)
January 10 | NASA Earth Observatory

The dry, volcanic terrain of this Canary Island is suitable for lichen and crops... and for training astronauts. NASA Earth Observatory images by Lauren Dauphin, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey.

Why So Many Earthquakes are Rocking Puerto Rico
January 10 | National Geographic
Australia*s Advice for Surviving a Bush Fire When Surrounded
January 10 | The Washington Post
Gulf of Mexico Hits Record Daily Production
January 9 | Rigzone
Astronomers Prepare a Mission Concept to Explore the Ice Giant Planets
January 9 | Smithsonian.com
Location, Location, Location: The How-to*s of Asteroid Sampling
January 9 | EOS Earth & Space Science News
Archaeologists Discover Remains of Vast Mayan Palace in Mexico
January 9 | The Guardian
Where the Dunes End
January 9 | NASA Earth Observatory

The northern extent of the Sand Sea of Namibia is the sporadic flow of the Kuiseb River.

The World*s Largest Deserts
January 9 | Geology.com

This map shows the generalized location of Earth*s ten largest deserts on the basis of surface area. Base map by NOAA.

Early Humans at Olduvai Gorge Optimized the Use of Quartzite, Chert and Basalt in Tool Making
January 9 | Phys.org
Early humans at Olduvai selected from basalt, chert, and quartzite, based upon how sharp, durable and efficient the materials were for a particular task.
Puerto Rico in State of Emergency after Most Powerful Quake in Over 100 Years
January 9 | The Guardian
Oil Producers Locking in Price Gains from Middle East Tension
January 8 | World Oil
The Youngest Homo erectus?
January 8 | Atlas Obscura
Eruption at Shishaldin Volcano
January 8 | Alaska Volcano Observatory

Shishaldin Volcano in eruption, January 6, 2020, as seen from Cold Bay, about 58 mi NE of Shishaldin. Photo courtesy of Aaron Merculief.

Undersea Volcanism May Help Explain Medieval Year of Darkness
January 8 | Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
10 Climate Change Impacts That Will Affect Us All
January 8 | Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Torrential Rains Flood Indonesia
January 8 | NASA Earth Observatory

In January 2020, Jakarta, Indonesia experienced its worst rainfall in more than a decade. NASA Earth Observatory image by Lauren Dauphin, using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019), processed by ESA and ARIA-SG team at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) in collaboration with NASA-JPL and Caltech.

NASA: The Best of Planet Earth in 2019
January 8 | NASA Earth Observatory

SOFIA Reveals How the Swan Nebula Hatched
January 8 | NASA

In this composite image of the Omega, or Swan, Nebula, SOFIA detected the blue areas near the center and the green areas. The white star field was detected by Spitzer. SOFIA*s view reveals evidence that parts of the nebula formed separately to create the swan-like shape seen today. Image by NASA/SOFIA/Lim, De Buizer, & Radomski et al.; ESA/Herschel; NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Complicated Role of Iron in Ocean Health and Climate Change
January 8 | Smithsonian.com

An immense dust plume blown off southern South America and transported eastward around the world over the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean. Image by William Putnam and Arlindo da Silva, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

Earthquake Damages Punta Ventana, a Puerto Rican Natural Wonder
January 7 | Miami Herald
M 6.4 Earthquake Strikes Puerto Rico, Killing at Least 1 Amid Heavy Seismic Activity
January 7 | NBC News
Earthquake Swarm, Southwestern Puerto Rico
January 7 | United States Geological Survey


New Zealand Oil Exploration Hinges on a Successful Well in the Great South Basin
January 7 | New Zealand Herald
U.S. Shale Producers Expected to Tap Brakes in 2020
January 7 | Reuters
Ohio Oil and Gas Production Leap in Third Quarter
January 7 | Business Journal
More than 7.2 million barrels of oil and 673 billion cubic feet of natural gas were drawn from Ohio*s Utica-Point Pleasant shale play in the third quarter.
Utica Shale - The Natural Gas Giant Below the Marcellus
January 7 | Geology.com

The cross section above shows the subsurface position of the Marcellus Shale, Utica Shale and the continental basement rock. The line of cross section is shown as line A-B on the inset map. Note that the Utica Shale is about 2000 feet below the Marcellus under eastern Ohio but about 6000 feet below the Marcellus in south-central Pennsylvania. Also note that the Marcellus Shale potential source rock does not extend as far into Ohio as the Utica.

Australian Dust on New Zealand*s Glaciers
January 7 | NASA
Carried by the wind, dust and ash particles from Australia have painted some glaciers on the South Island of New Zealand with a brown-orange tint.
The Strait of Hormuz Is the World*s Most Important Oil Transit Chokepoint
January 7 | Energy Information Administration

The Strait of Hormuz, located between Oman and Iran, connects the Persian Gulf with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea. The Strait of Hormuz is the world's most important oil chokepoint because about 21% of global petroleum liquids consumption pass through the strait each day.

U.S. Petroleum Exports Exceed Imports in September
January 7 | Energy Information Administration

NASA Planet Hunter Finds Earth-Size Habitable-Zone World
January 7 | NASA

TOI 700, a planetary system 100 light-years away in the constellation Dorado, is home to TOI 700 d, the first Earth-size habitable-zone planet discovered by NASA*s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. Image by NASA.

M 5.8 Earthquake - Off the Southern Coast of Puerto Rico
January 6 | United States Geological Survey

Aquatic Rover Goes for a Drive Under Antarctic Ice
January 6 | NASA

An underwater rover called BRUIE is being tested in Antarctica to look for life under the ice. Developed by engineers at NASA-JPL, the robotic submersible could one day explore ice-covered oceans on moons like Europa and Enceladus. BRUIE is pictured here in an arctic lake near Barrow, Alaska in 2015.

Life on Europa?
January 6 | Geology.com

Life on Europa: Water from a subsurface ocean on Jupiter*s moon, Europa, could reach the surface through seeps or erupt from hot water vents. This water would reveal the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and may contain microbes that live below. Artist's concept image by NASA / JPL.

Southern California Snow
January 6 | NASA Earth Observatory

A potent winter storm slammed Southern California on December 26, delivering heavy rain, snow, and even a tornado. The storm brought between 1 and 3.5 inches of rain to low-elevation areas. Several inches to several feet of snow fell on higher ground.