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Gemstones


Author: , Ph.D., GIA Graduate Gemologist


Gemstone Menu

Amazonite
Amethyst
Ametrine
Ammolite
Andalusite
Anyolite
Apatite
Aquamarine
Aventurine
Azurite
Azurmalachite
Beryl
  - Aquamarine
  - Emerald
  - Goshenite
  - Green Beryl
  - Heliodor
  - Morganite
  - Red Beryl
Benitoite
Birthstones
Bloodstone
Charoite
Chrysoberyl
Chrysoprase
Cordierite
Diamond
  - Blue Diamonds
  - Brown Diamonds
  - Colored Diamonds
  - Green Diamonds
  - Red Diamonds
  - Yellow Diamonds
Dinosaur Bone
Diopside
Dryhead Agate
Emerald
Fire Agate
Fluorite
Gaspeite
Garnet
Gem Silica
Geodes
Goldstone
Goshenite
Green Beryl
Helenite
Heliodor
Hematite
Iolite
Iris Agate
Jade
Jadeite
Jet
K2 Granite
Kyanite
Labradorite
Lapis Lazuli
Lepidolite
Malachite
Maw Sit Sit
Moldavite
Montana Moss Agate
Moonstone
Morganite
Nephrite
Opal
  - Boulder Opal
  - Cat's-Eye Opal
  - Common Opal
  - Ethiopian Opal
  - Fire Opal
  - Imitation Opal
  - Matrix Opal
  - Morado Opal
  - Opalized Wood
  - Precious Opal
  - Synthetic Opal
Organic Gems
Palm Wood
Peanut Wood
Peridot
Petrified Wood
Polka Dot Agate
Prasiolite
Quartz
  - Amethyst
  - Ametrine
  - Aventurine
  - Prasiolite
  - Rose Quartz
  - Smoky Quartz
Red Beryl
Rhodochrosite
Rhodonite
Rose Quartz
Ruby
Sapphire
  - Fancy Sapphire
Scapolite
Serpentine
Smoky Quartz
Sodalite
Sonora Sunrise
Sphalerite
Sphene
Spinel
Spodumene
Strontium Titanate
Sugilite
Sunstone
Tanzanite
Tiger's-Eye
Tiffany Stone
Titanite
Topaz
  - Blue Topaz
Tourmaline
Turquoise
Turritella Agate
Unakite
Variscite
Wonderstone
Zircon
Zoisite

Birthstones
birthstones
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Gems from Space
Gems from Space
Extraterrestrial Gems A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
Aquamarine
Aquamarine
Aquamarine is a popular blue gemstone that serves as a birthstone for the month of March.
Goshenite
goshenite
Goshenite is the colorless variety of the mineral beryl and a gem of interest mainly to collectors.
Green Gemstones
Green Gemstones
Green Gemstones - emerald, peridot, jade, tsavorite, chrome diopside, chrysoprase, more.
Lab-Grown Diamonds
Lab-Grown Diamonds
Lab-Grown Diamonds What are they? Can people really make diamonds? Are they real?
Moonstone
moonstone
Moonstone is one of the world*s most popular gems. A soft glow of light floats under its surface.
Gemstone Book
Gemstones of the World
Gemstones of the World : A book by Robert Schumann. Over one million copies sold.
Gem Minerals
Gem Mineral Collections
Gem Mineral Collections are a great way to learn about gem materials. Get yours.
Tumbled Stones
Tumbled Stones
Tumbled Stones are rocks that have been rounded, smoothed and polished in a rock tumbler.
All About Diamonds
Diamond
Diamond A collection of photos, articles, facts, maps and graphs about diamonds.
Ruby and Sapphire
Ruby and Sapphire
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
American Gemstones
U.S. Gemstones
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Opal Photos
Opal
Pictures of Opal A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Geodes
Geodes
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Emerald
emerald
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Amethyst
Amethyst
Amethyst - the most popular purple gem. It has a beautiful color and reasonable price.
Labradorite
Labradorite
Labradorite is a feldspar gem that can produce bright flashes of iridescent color.
Geology of Gems
Geology of Gems
Geology of Gems - The first comprehensive book on the geology of gem deposits.
Spodumene
Spodumene
Spodumene is an ore of lithium and the mineral of the gems kunzite and hiddenite.
Blood Diamonds
Blood Diamonds
Blood Diamonds Illegally-traded diamonds that may have been stolen or used to fund conflict.
100+ Gems
gem photos
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Goldstone
goldstone
Goldstone is a colorful man-made glass that is full of highly-reflective metallic inclusions.
Turquoise
Turquoise
Turquoise A blue to bluish- green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Tourmaline
Tourmaline
Tourmaline - the most colorful mineral and natural gem material on Earth.
Petrified Wood
Petrified Wood
Petrified Wood is a fossilized wood that often serves as a colorful gem material.
Ruby and Sapphire
Ruby and Sapphire
Ruby & Sapphire are gem corundums - ruby when red, sapphire when other colors.
Ammolite
Ammolite
Ammolite is a fossil and a gemstone. It is shell material from fossil ammonites.
Morganite
morganite
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Strontium Titanate
strontium titanate
Strontium Titanate - lab created diamond simulant with fire much stronger than diamond.
Geology Tools
Geology Tools
Geology Tools - Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Ethiopian Opal
Ethiopian opal
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
Zircon
Zircon
Zircon is a popular and colorful gem with fire and brightness that rivals diamond.
Lapis Lazuli
lapis lazuli
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
US Diamond Mines
United States Diamond Mines
US Diamond Mines Where are diamonds mined in the United States?
Topaz
Topaz
Topaz is a popular birthstone and the #8 mineral in the Mohs Hardness Scale.
Hardness Picks
Hardness Picks
Hardness Picks - Mohs hardness testing with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Fire Opal
Fire Opal
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Biggest Misconception
Diamonds from Coal
Diamonds Do Not Form From Coal Learn several reasons why the coal origin is false.
Red Beryl
Red Beryl
Red Beryl is one of the rarest gems. Small amounts are mined at one locality in Utah.
Rock Tumbling
rock tumblers
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Blue Gemstones
blue gemstones
Blue Gemstones - Most people shopping for a colored stone are looking for something blue.
Imitation Opal
Imitation Opal
Imitation Opal is man-made and looks like opal, but without the same composition or structure.
Organic Gems
Organic Gems
Organic Gems are gems formed from plant or animal materials.
Ant Hill Garnets
Ant Hill Garnets
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Arkansas Diamonds
Arkansas Diamonds
You Can Be A Diamond Miner! At the Crater of Diamonds mine you can keep what you find.
Malachite
Malachite
Malachite has served as a gem material, pigment and ore of copper for thousands of years.
Sunstone
Sunstone
Sunstone A feldspar with aventurescence caused by tiny copper inclusions.
Jet
jet
Jet is a black organic gem material that forms from well-preserved woody material.
Tanzanite
tanzanite
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
What Is Jade?
Jade
Jade has been used as a gemstone and a tool-making material for for 1000s of years.
Bloodstone
bloodstone
Bloodstone is a dark green jasper with a splatter of red color that looks like blood.
Cabochons
Cabochons
Cabochons A photo gallery of cabochon gemstones from around the world.
Spinel
Spinel
Spinel The gemstone that was confused with ruby and sapphire for over 1000 years.
Common Opal
Common Opal
Common Opal is a material that does not exhibit the play-of-color seen in precious opal.
Colored Diamonds
colored diamonds
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Unakite
Unakite
Unakite A gem material composed of green epidote and pink orthoclase.
Chatoyant Gems
cats eye gems
Chatoyant Gems look like the eye of a cat. They have a line of light that moves across the gem.
Gem Silica
Gem Silica
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Magnesite
magnesite
Magnesite is a white mineral that is often dyed to imitate turquoise or dyed outrageous colors for fun.
Chrysoprase
Chrysoprase
Chrysoprase - The translucent green variety of chalcedony that is colored by nickel.
Rose Quartz
Rose Quartz
Rose Quartz is the name used for specimens of translucent quartz with a pink color.
Yellow Diamonds
Yellow Diamonds
Yellow Diamonds are the most valuable yellow gems and the 2nd most common fancy diamond.
Rhodochrosite
Rhodochrosite
Rhodochrosite : a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
US Gem Production
US Gemstone Production
U.S. Gemstone Production is very low compared to the U.S. being the largest consumer.
Charoite
Charoite
Charoite is a rare purple mineral from Russia used as a gem material and ornamental stone.
Opalized Wood
Opalized Wood
Opalized Wood is a gem material consisting of wood that has been replaced by opaline silica.
Star Garnet
Star Garnet
Star Garnets are found in only a few locations worldwide. They are the state gems of Idaho.
Facts About Diamonds
Diamond Facts
Facts About Diamonds You are a diamond expert if you know all of these!
Cat's-Eye Opal
Cat's-Eye Opal
Cat's-Eye Opal - a phenomenal opal that exhibits chatoyance when properly cut en cabochon.
Rhodonite
rhodonite
Rhodonite is a pink manganese silicate used as a gemstone, an ornamental stone and an ore.
Fancy Sapphire
Fancy Sapphires
Fancy Sapphires are gem corundums of any color other than red, blue or colorless.
Green Diamonds
Green Diamonds
Green Diamonds - one of the rarest and most valuable diamond colors.
Azurmalachite
azurmalachite
Azurmalachite is a mixture of malachite and azurite. It can be a beautiful blue and green gem.
Smoky Quartz
Smoky quartz
Smoky Quartz - A brown color-variety of the mineral quartz often cut as a gem.
Fire Agate
Fire Agate
Fire Agate is a rare brown agate that exhibits iridescent colors of red, orange, yellow and green.
Diamond Producers
Diamond Producers
Diamonds are mined in many countries and their relative importance changes frequently.
Ametrine
Ametrine
Ametrine is a bicolor quartz (amethyst + citrine) and a gemstone of growing popularity.
Diopside
Chrome Diopside
Chrome Diopside is a green gemstone that is often used as an alternative stone for emerald.
Azurite
Azurite
Azurite is a vivid blue copper mineral that can be cut into beautiful cabochon gems.
Aventurine
Aventurine
Aventurine - a translucent quartz with reflective inclusions that cause aventurescence.
Peridot
Peridot
Peridot is the gem variety of olivine. Derived from the mantle and rarely from meteorites.
Garnet
Garnet
Garnet is best known as a red gemstone. It occurs in any color and has many industrial uses.
Tiffany Stone
Tiffany Stone
Tiffany Stone is a rare purple, blue and white rock, mined in Utah, and used as a gem.
Gem Beryl
Gem Beryl
Beryl - the mineral of emerald, aquamarine, morganite, heliodor, goshenite, and more.
Iris Agate
Iris Agate
Iris Agate can produce a rainbow of colors when light passes between its thin bands.
Lepidolite
Lepidolite
Lepidolite - a pink to purple mica sometimes used as a gem. A source of color in pink aventurine.
Gemstone Microscopy
gemstone inclusions
Looking Into the Mysteries of Gems and exploring their hidden secrets with a microscope.
Sugilite
Sugilite
Sugilite is a rare mineral and a gemstone best known for its vibrant pink to purple color.
Incorrect Names
incorrect gemstone names
Green Amethyst and Yellow Emerald are misleading names according to the FTC.
Benitoite
Benitoite
Benitoite - Geology of the State Gem of California - USGS report from 1911.
Helenite
Helenite
Helenite is a man-made glass produced by fusing ash from the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption.
Scapolite
Scapolite
Scapolite can be a pretty faceted stone or a translucent cab with cats-eye effects.
Andalusite
Andalusite
Andalusite - exhibits strong pleochroism and often has sets of oriented inclusions.
Apatite
Apatite
Apatite produces gemstones with vivid colors and is popular with collectors.
Maw Sit Sit
Maw Sit Sit
Maw Sit Sit is a metamorphic rock and a gem material that was once thought be jade.
Kyanite
kyanite
Kyanite is a metamorphic mineral used to make porcelain, abrasive products and gems.
Iolite
Iolite
Iolite is the gem variety of the mineral cordierite. An alternative to sapphire and tanzanite.
Brown Diamonds
Brown Diamonds
Brown Diamonds are growing in popularity and are frequently seen in fashion jewelry.
Chrysoberyl
chrysoberyl
Chrysoberyl an extreme gem. Its hardness is 8.5, can display chatoyance or color-change.
Serpentine
Serpentine
Serpentine - a group of metamorphic minerals used as gems and architectural stone.
Polka Dot Agate
Polka Dot Agate
Polka Dot Agate - a translucent blue to white agate with a suspension of colorful dots.
Zoisite
zoisite
Zoisite is a diverse gem. Tanzanite, thulite and anyolite are three of its gem varieties.
Moldavite
moldavite
Moldavite is a gem material born about 15 million years ago when a pair of asteroids struck Europe.
K2 Granite
K2 Granite - aka K2 Jasper
K2 Granite is a white granite with blue orbs of azurite. It is a new gem material from Pakistan.
Titanite aka Sphene
Titanite
Titanite is also known as sphene. It is a minor source of titanium and a minor gem.
Canadian Diamonds
Canadian Diamonds
Canadian Diamond Mines produce some of the largest and highest quality diamonds!
Prasiolite
Prasiolite
Prasiolite is amethyst that has been heat-treated to a leek-green color.
Peanut Wood?
Peanut Wood
Peanut Wood? Yes! It is a very interesting gem material found in Western Australia.
Gaspeite
gaspeite
Gaspeite is a rare green ore of nickel that has become a popular gem in southwestern jewelry.
Turritella Agate
Turritella Agate
Turritella Agate is a brown agate containing snail fossils from the Green River Formation.
Heliodor
Heliodor
Heliodor is a yellow, greenish-yellow or golden yellow beryl used as a gem.
Petrified Palm
Petrified Palm
Petrified Palm is often confused with petrified wood. It is a distinctly different material.
Sonora Sunrise
Sonora Sunrise
Sonora Sunrise is a gem material of Mexico composed of red cuprite and blue-green chrysocolla.
Synthetic Opal
synthetic opal
Synthetic Opal is a man-made material with the play-of-color and appearance of natural opal.
Gifts That Rock
Gifts That Rock
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store
Morado Opal
Morado Opal
Morado Opal is a purple variety of common opal which is found in central Mexico.
Variscite
Variscite
Variscite is a yellowish green to bluish green mineral. It is similar to turquoise and cut as a gem.