What is a Fluorescent Mineral?
All minerals have the ability to reflect light. That is what makes them visible to the human eye.
A few minerals have an interesting physical property known as "fluorescence". These minerals have the ability
to temporarily absorb a small amount of light and an instant later release a small amount of light
of a different wavelength. This change in wavelength causes a temporary color change
of the mineral in the eye of a human observer.
The color change of fluorescent minerals is most spectacular when they are illuminated in darkness by
ultraviolet light (which is not visible to humans) and they release visible light. The photograph above
is an example of this phenomenon.
Fluorescence in More Detail
Fluorescence in minerals occurs when a specimen is illuminated with specific wavelengths of light. Ultraviolet (UV) light, x-rays and cathode rays are the typical types of light that trigger fluorescence. These types of light have the ability to excite susceptible electrons within the atomic structure of the mineral. These excited electrons temporarily jump up to a higher orbital within the mineral's atomic structure. When those electrons fall back down to their original orbital a small amount of energy is released in the form of light. This release of light is known as fluorescence.
The wavelength of light released from a fluorescent mineral is often distinctly different from the wavelength of the incident light. This produces a visible change in the color of the mineral. This "glow" continues as long as the mineral is illuminated with light of the proper wavelength.
|Diagram that shows how photons and electrons interact to produce the fluorescence phenomenon.
How Many Minerals Fluoresce in UV Light?
Most minerals do not fluoresce. Only about 15% of minerals have this ability and every specimen
of those minerals does not fluoresce.  Fluorescence usually occurs when specific impurities
known as "activators" are present within the mineral. These activators are typically
cations of metals such as: tungsten, molybdenum, lead, boron, titanium, manganese, uranium and chromium. Rare earth elements such as
europium, terbium, dysprosium, and yttrium are also known to contribute to the fluorescence phenomenon. Fluorescence can also be caused by crystal structural
defects or organic impurities.
In addition to "activator" impurities, some impurities have a dampening effect on fluorescence.
If iron or copper are present as impurities they can reduce or eliminate fluorescence.
Furthermore, if the activator mineral is present in large amounts, that can reduce the
Most minerals fluoresce a single color. Other minerals have multiple colors of fluorescence.
Calcite has been known to fluoresce red, blue, white, pink, green and orange. Some minerals
are known to exhibit multiple colors of fluorescence in a single specimen. These can be banded
minerals that exhibit several stages of growth from parent solutions with changing compositions.
Many minerals fluoresce one color under short-wave UV light and another color under long-wave UV light.
Fluorite: The Original "Fluorescent Mineral"
One of the first people to observe fluorescence in minerals was George Gabriel Stokes in 1852. He noted the
ability of fluorite to produce a blue glow when illuminated with invisible light "beyond the violet
end of the spectrum". He called this phenomenon "fluorescence" after the mineral fluorite.
The name has gained wide acceptance in mineralogy, gemology, biology, optics, commercial lighting
and many other fields.
Many specimens of fluorite have a strong enough fluorescence that the observer can take them
outside, hold them in sunlight then move them into shade and see a color change. Only a few
minerals have this level of fluorescence. Fluorite typically glows a blue-violet color under
short-wave and long-wave light. Some specimens are known to glow a cream or white color. Many
specimens do not fluoresce. Fluorescence in fluorite is thought to be caused by the presence of yttrium,
europium, samarium  or organic material as activators.
Lamps for Viewing Fluorescent Minerals
The lamps used to locate and study fluorescent minerals are very different from the
ultraviolet lamps (called "black lights") sold in novelty stores. The novelty store
lamps are not suitable for mineral studies for two reasons: 1) they emit long-wave
ultraviolet light (most fluorescent minerals respond to short-wave ultraviolet); and,
2) they emit a significant amount of visible light which interferes with accurate
observation, but is not a problem for novelty use. 
The scientific-grade lamps used for mineral studies have a filter that blocks most of
the visible light that will interfere with observation. These filters are very expensive
and are partly responsible for the significantly higher price of scientific lamps.
Scientific-grade lamps are produced in a variety of different wavelengths. The table
at left lists the wavelength ranges that are most often used for fluorescent mineral
studies and their common abbreviations.
Ultraviolet Wavelength Range
|These wavelength ranges are used for fluorescent mineral studies and targeted by scientific lamps.
UV Lamp Safety
Read the safety instructions provided with your UV lamp prior to use.
Ultraviolet wavelengths of light are present in sunlight. They are the wavelengths that cause sunburn. UV lamps produce
the same wavelengths of light but at a higher intensity than what is present in sunlight.
Small UV lamps with just a few watts of power are safe for short periods of use. The user should not look into the
lamp, shine the lamp directly onto the skin, or shine the lamp towards the face of a person or pet. Looking into the
lamp can cause serious eye injury. Shining a UV lamp onto your skin can cause a "sunburn".
Eye protection should be worn when using any UV lamp. Inexpensive UV blocking glasses, UV blocking safety glasses,
or prescription glasses provide adquate protection when using a low voltage UV lamp intended for specimen examination.
The safety procedures of UV lamps used for fluorescent mineral studies should not be confused with those provided with the
"blacklights" sold at party and novelty stores. "Blacklights" emit low intensity long wave UV radiation. The short wave UV
radiation produced by a mineral study lamp contains the wavelengths associated with sunburn and eye injury. This is why mineral
study lamps should be used with eye protection and handled more carefully than "blacklights".
UV lamps used to illuminate large mineral displays or used for outdoor field work have much higher voltages than the small UV lamps
used for specimen examination by students. Eye protection should always be worn when using a high voltage lamp. Clothing
that covers the arms, legs and feet should be worn if using the lamp for more than a few minutes.
Practical Uses of Fluorescence in Minerals
Fluorescence has some practical uses in mining, gemology, petrology and mineralogy.
The mineral scheelite, an ore of tungsten, typically has a
bright blue fluorescence. Geologists prospecting for scheelite sometimes
go out at night with fluorescent lamps to look for deposits. They
also use fluorescent lamps to examine core specimens and well cuttings.
These exploration procedures have also been used for other minerals.
Fluorescent lamps can be used in underground mines to identify and
trace ore-bearing rocks. They have also been used on picking lines
to quickly spot valuable pieces of ore and separate them from waste.
Many gemstones are sometimes fluorescent including: ruby, kunzite,
diamond and opal. This property can sometimes be used to spot small
stones in sediment or crushed ore. It can also be a
way to associate stones with a mining locality. For example:
light yellow diamonds with strong blue fluorescence are produced by
South Africa's Premier mine and colorless stones with a strong blue
fluorescence are produced by South Africa's Jagersfontein mine. The stones from these
mines are nicknamed "Premiers" and "Jagers".
In the early 1900s many diamond merchants would seek out stones with a strong
blue fluorescence. They believed that these stones would appear more
colorless (less yellow) when viewed in light with a high ultraviolet
content. This eventually resulted in controlled lighting conditions for
color grading diamonds. 
Fluorescence is not routinely used in mineral
identification. Most minerals are not fluorescent and the property is unpredictable. Calcite provides a good example.
Some calcite does not fluoresce. Specimens of calcite that do fluoresce glow in
a variety of colors including: red, blue, white, pink, green and orange.
It is rarely a diagnostic property.
Fluorescent Mineral Books
Two great introductory books about fluorescent minerals are: Collecting Fluorescent Minerals by Stuart Schneider and The World of Fluorescent Minerals also by Stuart Schneider. These books are written in easy-to-understand language and each of them has a fantastic collection of color photographs showing fluorescent minerals under normal and ultraviolet light. They are great for learning and serve as valuable reference books.
Other Luminescence Properties
Fluorescence is one of several luminescence properties that a mineral might
exhibit. Other luminescence properties include:
In fluorescence, electrons excited by incoming photons jump up to a higher
energy level and remain there for a tiny fraction of a second before falling back
to the ground state and emitting fluorescent light. In phosphorescence the
electrons remain in the excited state orbital for a greater amount of time before falling.
Minerals with fluorescence stop glowing when the light source is turned off.
Minerals with phosphorescence can glow for a brief time after the light source
is turned off. Minerals that are sometimes phosphorescent include: calcite, celestine,
colemanite, fluorite, sphalerite, and willemite.
Thermoluminescence is the ability of a mineral to emit a small amount of light
upon being heated. This heating might be to temperatures as low as 50 to 200 degrees Celsius - much
lower than the temperature of incandescence. Apatite, calcite, chlorophane, fluorite, lepidolite,
scapolite and some feldspars are occasionally thermoluminescent.
Some minerals will emit light when mechanical energy is applied to them. These minerals
glow when they are struck, crushed, scratched or broken. This light is a result of bonds
being broken within the mineral structure. The amount of light emitted is very small and
careful observation in the dark is often required. Minerals that sometimes display triboluminescence
include: amblygonite, calcite, fluorite, lepidolite, pectolite, quartz, sphalerite, and some feldspars.
Page last updated: April 19, 2015
Contributor: Hobart King
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|This sketch is a key to the fluorescent rocks and minerals in the large color image at the top of this page.
The fluorescent minerals in each specimen are: 1. Cerussite, Barite - Morocco;
2. Scapolite - Canada;
3. Hardystonite (blue), Calcite (red), Willemite (green) - New Jersey;
4. Dolomite - Sweden;
5. Adamite - Mexico;
6. Scheelite - unknown locality;
7. Agate - Utah;
8. Tremolite - New York;
9. Willemite - New Jersey;
10. Dolomite - Sweden;
11. Fluorite, Calcite - Switzerland;
12. Calcite - Romania;
13. Rhyolite - unknown locality;
14. Dolomite - Sweden;
15. Willemite (green), Calcite (red), Franklinite, Rhodonite - New Jersey;
16. Eucryptite - Zimbabwe;
17. Calcite - Germany;
18. Calcite in a Septarian nodule - Utah;
19. Fluorite - England;
20. Calcite - Sweden;
21. Calcite, Dolomite - Sardinia;
22. Dripstones - Turkey;
23. Scheelite - unknown locality;
24. Aragonite - Sicily;
25. Benitoite - California;
26. Quartz Geode - Germany;
27. Dolomite, Iron Ore - Sweden;
29. Synthetic Corundum;
30. Powellite - India;
31. Hyalite (opal) - Hungary;
32. Vlasovite in Eudyalite - Canada;
33. Spar Calcite - Mexico;
34. Manganocalcite? - Sweden;
35. Clinohydrite, Hardystonite, Willemite, Calcite - New Jersey;
36. Calcite - Switzerland;
37. Apatite, Diopside - United States;
38. Dolostone - Sweden;
39. Fluorite - England;
40. Manganocalcite - Peru;
41. Hemimorphite with Sphalerite in gange - Germany;
45. Dolomite - Sweden;
46. Chalcedony - unknown locality;
47 Willemite, Calcite - New Jersey. This image was produced by Dr. Hannes Grobe and is part of the Wikimedia Commons collection. It is used here under a Creative Commons license.
|Tumble-polished specimens of fluorite in normal light (top) and under short-wave ultraviolet light (bottom). The
fluorescence appears to be related to the color and banding structure of the minerals in plain light.
|This spodumene (gem variety kunzite) provides at least three important lessons in mineral fluorescence. All three photos show the same scatter of specimens. The top is in normal light, the center is in short-wave ultraviolet and the bottom is in long-wave ultraviolet. Lessons: 1) a single mineral can fluoresce with different colors; 2) the fluorescence can be different colors under short-wave and long-wave light; and, 3) some specimens of a mineral will not fluoresce.
|Three hobbyist-grade lamps used for fluorescent mineral viewing. At top left is a small "flashlight" style lamp that produces long-wave UV light and is small enough to easily fit in a pocket. At top right is a small portable short-wave lamp. The lamp at bottom produces both long-wave and short-wave light. The two windows are thick glass filters that eliminate visible light. The larger lamp is strong enough to use in taking photographs.
| This image shows some pieces of tumbled ocean jasper under normal light (top) long-wave ultraviolet (center) and short-wave ultraviolet (bottom). It shows how materials respond to different types of light. Image provided by RockTumbler.com, a partner site of geology.com.
|Fluorescent Mineral References|
 Basic Concepts in Fluorescence: Michael Davidson and others, Optical Microscopy Primer, Florida State University, accessed August, 2012.
 Fluorescent Minerals: James O. Hamblen, a website about fluorescent minerals, Georgia Tech, 2003.
 The World of Fluorescent Minerals, Stuart Schneider, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2006.
 Collecting Fluorescent Minerals, Stuart Schneider, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2004.
 A Contribution to Understanding the Effect of Blue Fluorescence on the Appearance of Diamonds: Thomas Moses and others, Gems and Gemology, Gemological Institute of America, Winter 1997.
 Ultraviolet Light Safety: Connecticut High School Science Safety, Connecticut State Department of Education, accessed December, 2012.