A landscape that is characterized by the features of solution weathering and erosion in the subsurface. These features include caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams and subsurface drainage.
Solid organic substances frequently found in shales that can yield gases and liquids through heating. The organic component of an oil shale. The photo is a microscopic view of an organic black shale in reflected light the brown resinous material is kerogen.
A depression formed in glacial deposits when a buried block of ice, left behind by a retreating glacier, melts.
A lake that forms in a kettle.
A potassium feldspar such as orthoclase, microcline, sanidine or adularia. Also referred to as potash feldspar.
A unit of pressure equal to 1000 bars (the mean atmospheric pressure at 100 meters above sea level is one bar).
A variety of peridotite that is found in volcanic pipes which are thought to be intrusions from the upper mantle. Many diamond deposits are found in kimberlite pipes.
An abrupt change in slope. A point on a stream profile where a change in gradient occurs. This could be caused by a change in underlying bedrock or bedrock structure.
A metamorphic mineral that occurs in beautiful hues of blue and green. It has perfect cleavage and has a hardness of 4.5 in one direction, 5.5 in another, making it best used in items that will not be subjected to wear.