Geological Terms Beginning With "V"
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Water that exists in the pore spaces of a rock or soil within the vadose zone (between the ground surface and the water table).
Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom. The electrons that are typically involved in making chemical bonds. Shown in the image is one sodium atom and one chlorine atom. A loss or gain of electrons in the outermost shell would produce an ion with a valence.
A glacier that occurs in a mountainous region and occupies a valley. Also known as an Alpine Glacier.
Van der Waals Bond
A weak chemical bond in which atoms are held together by weak electrostatic attraction.
A thin layer of fine-grained sediment deposited in the still waters of a lake. Varves are frequently associated with glaciation and represent a yearly sedimentation cycle - a silty, light-colored layer deposited in summer and a darker, organic-rich clay layer deposited during winter.
A fracture that has been filled with mineral material. The photo shows a passage in an underground mine that was developed by removing the rock within a vein that followed a fault. The exposed footwall surface of fault is on the left side of the photo. From the Standard Mine in Gunnison County, Colorado.
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In making sketches of landscapes and cross sections, the vertical dimension is frequently exaggerated to show topographic detail. Vertical exaggeration is a number that represents the magnitude of this exaggeration. It is a proportion between the vertical scale and the horizontal scale. For example, a cross section with a vertical exaggeration of 4 has a vertical scale that is four times the horizontal scale (in this example the vertical scale could be 1:25 while the horizontal scale is 1:100). The image shows a cross section through a mud volcano created using high-resolution seismic reflection with a vertical exaggeration of 16.5.
The resistance of a fluid to flow. Fluids with a high viscosity resist flow. Fluids with a low viscosity flow freely. The photo shows a low-viscosity basaltic lava flow that is so hot that the lava is incandescent.
A chain of volcanoes that forms on the surface of a continental plate when an oceanic plate collides with it and subducts beneath it. Also, a chain of volcanoes that forms on an oceanic plate in a similar collision with another oceanic plate. The image shows the Cascades Volcanic Arc of the northwestern United States.
Small particles, less than two millimeters, of igneous rock that form when a spray of liquid magma is blown from a volcanic vent by escaping gas. These cool quickly, usually into tiny glassy particles similar to pumice, which are lifted out of the vent by escaping gas and carried away from the volcano by wind. These particles can be carried in the atmosphere for hundreds to thousands of miles and present a hazard to aircraft. The smallest and most mobile particles are known as "volcanic dust."
An accumulation of volcanic ash produced by an eruption. These can be very thick near the vent and decrease to a light dusting in a downwind direction. An ashfall presents a breathing hazard to people and animals. It can also cover crops and ruin harvest. When a significant accumulation occurs, it can collapse buildings, fill storm drains, and turn into a natural "concrete" if it becomes wet. It can be like a snowfall that does not melt and thus creates a disposal problem.
A rock greater than 64 millimeters in diameter that was ejected from a volcano during an explosive eruption. They are typically pieces of the volcanic cone that were torn loose during the eruption rather than a mass of molten ejecta that solidified in flight. The block in the photo was found on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.
A cone-shaped hill or mountain composed of pyroclastic debris and/or lava that has accumulated around a volcanic vent during eruptions.
A round, steep-sided extrusion of very viscous lava that is squeezed from a volcanic vent without major eruption. The lava is too viscous to flow and is composed of rhyolite or dacite. The dome shown in the photo is the vent of the Novarupta eruption of 1912, the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. The small dome was overlooked when the source of the eruption was originally determined, and the wrong volcano was blamed. Also called "lava domes."
A method of comparing the severity of explosive volcanic eruptions using the volume of material ejected as a scale. The scale is logarithmic and begins at 0 for an eruption that produces less than 0.001 cubic kilometer of ejecta. Each step in the scale is a 10X increase in the volume of ejecta. About fifty eruptions have been rated a value of 8 on this scale.
A vertical intrusion with the geometry of a volcanic pipe; an erosional remnant of a volcanic pipe. The image is a photo of "Shiprock," one of the world's best-known volcanic necks, located in San Juan County, New Mexico.
A vertical or nearly vertical conduit that connects a magma reservoir to the surface. Magma and gas travel upwards through this conduit to produce a volcanic eruption. After the eruption, the pipe can be filled with cooling magma that preserves its shape as an intrusive body, or it can be filled with volcanic breccia and serve as a passageway for liquids, gases, and their entrained solids.
A valley with a narrow bottom and a cross section shaped like the letter "V." Valleys of this shape are almost always cut by stream erosion. The photo shows a V-shaped valley cut into the Orange Mountain Basalt near Feltville, New Jersey.
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