Geological Terms Beginning With "M"
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A maar is a small shallow volcanic crater with steep sides that forms in an explosive volcanic eruption that is triggered when rapidly ascending magma contacts ground water at a shallow depth and a steam explosion occurs. Maars are usually surrounded by tephra deposits that are thickest near the maar and thin with distance. Most maars are only a few hundred to several thousand feet across and are at most a few hundred feet deep. After cinder cones they are the second most common volcanic landform.
A term used to describe an igneous rock that has a large percentage of dark-colored minerals such as amphibole, pyroxene and olivine. Also used in reference to the magmas from which these rocks crystallize. Mafic rocks are generally rich in iron and magnesium. Basalt and gabbro are examples of mafic rocks. (See felsic to contrast.)
Molten rock material that occurs below Earth's surface.
A subsurface reservoir of magma at a shallow depth in Earth's crust. It can serve as a source of magma and gases for volcanic eruptions if it connects to the surface through a pipe or connects to another magma chamber through a dike or a sill. Some magma chambers never produce a volcano and slowly cool to produce a differentiated mass of igneous rock.
Water that is dissolved in a magma or water that is released from a magma. Some magmas can contain up to several percent dissolved water by weight.
An increase or decrease in the local magnetic field compared to the normally expected value. The image is a section of the United States Geological Survey's full spectrum magnetic anomaly grid of the United States with improved long wavelengths for studying continental dynamics.
The horizontal angular difference between Geographic North and Magnetic North. This angular difference varies, depending upon your location on the face of the earth.
The vertical angular difference between a horizontal plane and the orientation of Earth's magnetic field. Near the magnetic equator the magnetic inclination will be approximately zero. As the pole is approached the magnetic inclination will increase and at the magnetic pole the magnetic inclination will be 90 degrees.
The direction that a compass points. The location where Earth's magnetic field dips vertically into the Earth.
A change in the polarity of Earth's magnetic field in which the north magnetic pole becomes the south magnetic pole and vice versa. Also known as geomagnetic reversal or polarity reversal. Earth's magnetic field has reversed many times in the past and the time intervals between these changes are known as polarity epochs.
The correlation of rock units and the study of Earth's history using magnetic events and magnetic epochs as a time reference.
An instrument designed to measure the strength and character of Earth's magnetic field or the magnetic properties of the underlying rocks. There are many types of magnetometers for different scales of measurement and for different methods of surveying. Some are carried by hand, or in vehicles. Others are towed behind ships or aircraft.
A measure of earthquake strength based upon the amount of ground motion experienced and corrected for the distance between the observation point and the epicenter. There are several magnitude scales in use.
Malachite is a copper carbonate mineral that has served as a minor ore of copper. It has a bright green color, often with beautiful banding, swirl and eye patterns. This makes it an attractive gemstone. Because it is soft and cleaves easily, it is best used in items that will not be subjected to abrasion or impact.
Malaya is a pink to pinkish brown or reddish variety of garnet. Compositionally, it is a mixture of pyrope, almandine, and spessartine. It is occasionally seen in jewelry.
Mali is a yellow to yellowish green variety of garnet, named after the African country of Mali. It is a mixture of grossular and andradite that is occasionally seen in jewelry. It has great dispersion (fire) as seen in this photo.
A rounded concretion, rich in manganese minerals with minor concentrations of cobalt, copper, nickel and other metals. These occur in abundance on some parts of the deep ocean floor and have been considered as a potential source of manganese. The photo shows iron-manganese nodules on the seafloor north of the Puerto Rico Trench at a depth of about 5339 meters. The nodules are about two to four centimeters in diameter.
A major subdivision of Earth's internal structure. Located between the base of the crust and the top of the core. It is approximately 1800 miles thick and has a composition that is distinctly different from the crust above and the metallic core below. The mantle makes up about 84% of Earth's volume.
A rising mass of hot mantle material that can create an area of volcanic activity in the center of a lithospheric plate.
A non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone. It is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. Picture of Marble.
Mary Ellen is a rock that consists of red jasper and hematite with a submetallic luster. The jasper is a fossil stromatolite, a layered structure built up by sediment-trapping algae that lived on Earth about two billion years ago - long before land plants.
A term used in reference to a rock unit that is homogeneous in texture, fabric and appearance.
Mass Wasting (also Mass Movement)
A general term used for any downslope movement of rock, soil, snow or ice under the influence of gravity. Includes: landslides, creep, rock falls and avalanches.
Matrix opal is a material in which precious opal is in an intimate mixture with the host rock, instead of being confined to seams and patches. The specimen in the photo is from Andamooka, Australia and is a sedimentary rock with opal filling the voids between sedimentary grains.
Maw sit sit is a rock composed of jadeite, albite, and kosmochlor (a mineral related to jadeite). It is attractive, has a bright chrome green color and accepts a bright polish, and for those reasons it is used as a gemstone.
One thousand cubic feet - the standard sales volume for natural gas.
One million cubic feet - the standard reporting volume for daily natural gas well production.
A stream that has many bends (meanders). This type of drainage pattern usually develops on a nearly level landscape and where the banks of the stream are easily eroded.
A general term applied to a variety of weathering processes that result in the particle size reduction of rock materials with no change in composition. Abrasion, frost action, salt crystal growth and pressure relief fracturing are examples. Also known as physical weathering.
A streak of till in the center of a glacier. These are found downslope from the junction of two glaciers and are a merging of their lateral moraine deposits.
The study of human health related to geology. Examples would include the correlation of disease or vitality with residences over specific types of bedrock or health problems associated with exposure to specific mineral materials.
Melanite is a lustrous, black, opaque variety of garnet that is not often seen in jewelry. It is a titanium garnet of the Andradite group and is sometimes called "titanian andradite".
Alteration of the minerals, textures and composition of a rock caused by exposure to heat, pressure and chemical actions.
Water from the atmosphere, such as rain, snow, hail, or sleet.
A streak of light momentarilly visible in the night sky when a meteoroid penetrates Earth's atmosphere. The meteoroid is travelling at a speed of at least 20 kilometers per second. That great speed causes it to impact air molecules with enough force to heat it to a glowing temperature and to vaporize particles from its surface. A trail of these hot particles is left behind the meteoroid. Because of their high temperature they glow momentarily, producing a streak of light. This streak of light is known as a "shooting star" or a "meteor".
A particle of iron or rock that has fallen to Earth's surface from inter-planetary space. They sometimes have concave pits in their surface caused by ablation as they fall through the atmosphere. Meteorites are also found on the Moon and other bodies in our solar system. In fact, the NASA Mars Rovers have found many Martian meteorites.
A particle of iron or rock found in inter-planetary space. Distinguished from planets or asteroids by its much smaller size.
Mica is the name used for a group of sheet silicate minerals with a generalized chemical composition of (K,Na,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Li,Al)2-3(OH,F)2[(Si,Al)4O10]. These minerals have basal cleavage that is so well developed that specimens have the ability to split into very thin sheets. Shown in the photo are the two most common mica minerals, biotite and muscovite.
A vibration of the Earth that is unrelated to earthquake activity - instead it is caused by wind, moving trees, ocean waves or human activity.
The activities of preparing an ore for market. This can include: crushing, grinding, concentration, separation of impurities, and conversion into a transportable state. The image shows a ball mill, a large revolving drum into which ore is placed with large steel balls. The drum is rotated and the balls are tossed around inside, repeatedly impacting the ore and crushing it into a fine powder over time. This small particle size allows impurities to be separated from the target material.
The maximum amount of material that a mill can produce in a unit of time. Tons per hour is a typical unit for milling capacity.
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and an ordered internal structure. If it isn't grown, it is probably a mineral that is produced from a mine.
An ownership, lease, concession, or other contractual interest that gives a party the right to explore and extract mineral resources on a property. The photo shows test drilling of a mineral property.
A contract in which a mineral interest owner conveys to another party a right to explore for, develop, and produce mineral resources. The lessee acquires a working interest and the lessor retains a royalty interest of a specified percentage. The photo shows test drilling of a mineral property.
The ownership of rocks, minerals and fluids beneath an area of land. The owner has the freedom to sell, lease, gift or bequest these rights individually or entirely to others.
The study of minerals - their composition, structure, formation, uses, properties, occurrence and geographic distribution.
The boundary between the crust and the mantle. Frequently referred to as the Moho. In the image the Moho is the thin red line at the base of the crust.
A collection of minerals ranging from very soft to very hard. Use as a comparison scale during mineral identification. From softest to hardest, the ten minerals are: talc 1, gypsum 2, calcite 3, fluorite 4, apatite 5, orthoclase 6, quartz 7, topaz 8, corundum 9, and diamond 10. Developed by Friedrich Mohs, a German mineralogist in the early 1800's.
Moldavite is a glassy material that is thought to have formed when a large asteroid impacted a location in eastern Europe about 15 million years ago. The target rock and impactor melted and solidified into an olive green glass.
A group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds. The group of atoms does not have an electrical charge and is the smallest possible unit of that substance that is possible. The image shows a sodium atom and a chlorine atom combined to produce a salt molecule.
An area of increased dip in otherwise gently dipping strata. The image shows a monocline over a reverse fault.
A colorful gem material mined in Australia. It forms from the deposition and lithification of a sediment composed of the silica tests of radiolarians, known as a radiolarite. It is a popular material for making cabochons and beads.
Moonstone is a name given to translucent orthoclase feldspar that exhibits adularescence (a white-to-bluish light that floats just under the surface of the stone when it is turned under a source of light).
A mound, ridge or ground covering of unstratified and unsorted till, deposited by ice action or by melting away of a glacier. Many different types of moraines are distinguished: terminal, ground, lateral, ablation, medial, push, and recessional. The photo shows a push moraine formed by the Harriman Glacier of Alaska.
Morganite, also called "pink beryl," is the pink- to salmon-colored gemstone member of the beryl mineral group.
Moss agate is a transparent-to-translucent chalcedony that contains mineral inclusions that are shaped like moss, trees, leaves, or other vegetation.
Mother of pearl, also known as "MOP," is the thin inner nacreous layer of a mollusk shell. It can be white, cream, or gray in color with a beautiful iridescent play-of-color. It is cut and shaped for use in jewelry, buttons, musical instruments, and more.
A general term used in reference to an area that is at a conspicuously higher elevation than surrounding lands. Mountains are larger than hills and are significant enough in relief that they are given names by local residents.
A downslope movement of wet soil and rock debris that is mostly composed of clay-size particles and water. At the base of the slope the flow spreads out over the run-out area in the form of a lobe. The internal particle motion is that of a flow rather than of a rotating or translating mass. Many mudflows move at a rate of a few feet per year or less but some reach speeds in excess of 60 miles per hour. Movement is usually triggered during times of heavy rainfall or rapid snow melt.
A sedimentary rock composed of clay-size particles but lacking the stratified structure that is characteristic of a shale. The image shows a hole in mudstone on Mars that was drilled by NASA's Curiosity Rover in May, 2013. The hole is about 0.6 inch across.
Multiple Completion Well
A well equipped to produce oil and/or gas from more than one reservoir.
Million years - abbreviation.
Million years ago - abbreviation.
A fine-grained foliated metamorphic rock found in zones of ductile deformation as might occur near the shear zone of a fault.
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